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The family Pinaceae: Abies Cedrus Larix Picea Pinus Pseudolarix Pseudotsuga Tsuga
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The genus Pinus - the Pines

A genus of c. 80 species. Trees all evergreen, usuallv with spreading crowns, though often pyramidal. The branches are of two kinds, long shoots of unlimited growth and short (or spur) shoots of limited growth. These bear the 2, 3 or 5 needle-shaped foliage leaves which have a basal investment of scale leaves. The whole short shoot falls ifter a few years, leaving the long shoot naked. Staminate cones may replace the spur shoots and ovulate cones the long shoots on the same tree (monoecious). The ovulate cones are woody with persistent scales and in some species remain on the tree for many years.

Pinus ayacahuite, Ehrenberg
Mexican White Pine

A five-leaved pine, growing to 100 feet, this species is similar to P. wallichiaiia in foliage with slender drooping leaves. The basal scales of the very long cone are reflexed. Discovered in Mexico in 1836, its range extends from Guatemala to Mexico. In this country it makes a decorative tree in mild sheltered areas, but is liable to damage by very cold winds.

Pinus cembra, L.
Arolla Pine, Swiss Stone Pine

This five-leaved pine is indigenous to the Alps of Central Europe and Siberia, growing to 80 feet. Introduced by the Duke of Argyll in 1746. It forms a handsome tree but is of no timber value. The wingless seeds, known as pine kernels, are eaten in Switzerland and more extensively in IZussia and Siberia. The testas yield an oil known as “Cedar Oil”. The leaves, dark green and with smooth acute tips, are crowded on short horizontal branches.

Pinus cembroides, Zuccarini
Nut Pine, Three-leaved Nut Pine

A three-leaved pine growing to c. 20 feet, a native of Mexico, Arizona and California. Discovered in New Mexico in 1839. The nuts, together with those of the two-leaved P. cembyoides var. edulis (Engelm) Voss, are eaten by the Indians of Mexico.

Pinus contorta, Loudon
Beach Pine, Shore Pine, Lodgepole Pine

A very hardy two-leaved pine attaining only c. 30 feet in cultivation. Native of the Pacific coast of North America from Alaska to California, and once used by Red Indians for their wigwams. Discovered by Douglas in 1825 and introduced about 1855. So far of little commercial significance in this country, but recently being planted on windswept moorlands by the Forestry Commission. The characteristic features are the short curiously twisted branches, the short twisted yellow-green leaves and the long buds with their yellow-brown scales encrusted with resin.

Pinus densitiora, Siebold & Zuccarini
Japanese Red Pine

A two-leaved pine growing to 120 feet, it is a valuable timber tree in Japan. It has a reddish bark not unlike that of P. sylvestris, from which it differs in its dull green leaves and glaucous young shoots. Deserves to be planted more often in large gardens. One of the pines commonly used for “dwarfing” (bonsai) in Japan.

Pinus flexflis, James
Limber Pine

A five-leaved pine from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, from Alberta to Texas. It grows to 70 feet in height. The grey- green leaves are densely crowded on the ends of short flexible branchlets. It was introduced into this country by Jeffrey in l851, but it has not been commonly planted because it is slow growing.

Pinus halepensis, Miller
Aleppo Pine, Jerusalem Pine

A two-leaved pine with grey-green leaves growing to about 60 feet. A species common in the countries bordering the Mediterranean, it was introduced into this country in 1683. It is markedly drought-resisting and valuable for hot dry regions where it is used as a wind-break and to check soil erosion. It is useful for planting in maritime localities. The resin is said to have been used in Egypt for the embalming of the dead.

Pinus jeffreyi, A. Murray
Jeffrey's Pine

A three-leaved pine native on the Western seaboard of the U.S.A. and grown occasionally for its ornamental long blue-green leaves. It has been recognised by some authorities as P. Pondeyosa var. jeffreyi (Vasey).

Pinus koraiensis, Siebold & Zuccarini
Korean Pine

A five-leaved pine of pyramidal habit, native to Japan and Korea, and growing to 90 feet in height. Introduced by J. G. Veitch in 1861. It is rather slow-growing. The tree resembles P. cembya but its leaves have blunter tips with minutely toothed margins.

Pinus montezumae, Lambert
Mexican Pine

A five-leaved pine, native in the mountains of Mexico where it grows up to 70 feet high. The leaves are blue-green and are very long (up to 12 inches) ; the leaf-sheaths are persistent and the buds large. The bark is thick and rough. It was introduced in 1839, but grows well only in good soil in the extreme South West of the country. The specimen above Reed Hall is supposed to be one of the finest in the country.

Pinus mugo, Turra (P. montana, Miller)
Mountain Pine

A two-leaved pine growing occasionally to 70 feet high. Native in the mountains of Central and Eastern Europe, this pine has a large number of varieties or geographical forms. It is used for cover and decorative planting and withstands wind and cold well. The typical tree is bushy in habit with ascending branches bearing crowded stout dark leaves.

Pinus muricata, D. Don
Bishop Pine

This hardy two-leaved pine, of the Californian coast round San Francisco Bay, grows to a height of 50 feet. The tree fon-ns a compact flat-topped head with dense foliage. The leaves are rigid and yellowish-green. The buds are resinous and the prickly oblique cones are persistent, usually remaining in clusters on the branches for many years. In this it resembles P. radiata which has three leaves on the spur shoot and is rather less lanky. Like P. radiata, it can withstand the effects of sea-spray and makes an effective wind-break, though its timber value is small.

Pinus nigra, Arnold var. austriaca
Austrian Pine

The two-leaved Black Pine is a variable species of Southern Europe. This variety, which is a native of the Balkans and Austria, has a more branching habit, shorter stouter branches and straighter leaves than var. calabrica, the Corsican Pine. It is not planted for its timber, which is very knotty, but is sometimes used for shelter belts on poor or calcareous soils and near the sea.

Pinus parviflora, Siebold & Zuccarini
Japanese White Pine

This five-leaved pine, indigenous to Japan and the Kurile Islands, was introduced into England by J. G. Veitch in 1861. Though growing to a large size in Japan, it seldom reaches more than 30 feet in this country. The leaves with silvery lines of stomata on the inner surfaces persist for three years. The ovulate cones are characteristic and occur in whorls of three or four. The branches tend to grow horizontally. It is much used by the Japanese for “dwarfing”.

Pinus pinaster, Aiton (P. maritima Du Roi)
Cluster Pine, Maritime Pine

This two-leaved pine, in its native habitat on the Mediterranean coast, attains 100 feet. Large forests in the Landes in the Bordeaux region have been planted to prevent soil erosion and to utilise derelict land. It yields turpentine, resin and timber. As the name implies it grows well in maritime conditions. It is used in the Scilly Isles, Dorset and parts of Norfolk as a shelter belt tree, but it does not succeed in heavy soils or in the colder parts of Britain. It has long tough leaves, large cones in, clusters and a crooked habit.

Pinus pinea, L.
Umbrella Pine, Stone Pine

A two-leaved pine native in Southern Europe from Portugal to Asia Minor, it grows to a tree of 80 feet, but is normally much shorter. The crown is characteristically umbrella-shaped. The cones are large, rounded and symmetrical and the bud scales reflexed. It is not a particularly hardy tree and does not withstand severe frost. The large seeds yield the pine kernels, pignons or pidocchi of commerce, which have been much esteemed since Roman times.

Pinus ponderosa, Douglas
Western Yellow Pine

A three-leaved pine native to Western North America and grow- ing there to 200 feet. It is a very valuable timber tree in America where it is extensively planted. Introduced into this country by Douglas in 1827, it does not appear to be of much use for timber here. The dark green leaves bear stomatal lines and the cone scales a recurved prickle.

Pinus radiata, D. Don (P. insignis Douglas)
Monterey Pine

A three-leaved pine native to Monterey, California, on the hilly South West coast. It grows extremely rapidly, has dense foliage, a spreading habit and ability to withstand exposure to strong sea winds. It is very much used for shelter belts and ornamental planting, especially in the warmer maritime counties of Britain. It is easily damaged by severe and prolonged frost. It is distinguished from all the other three-leaved pines by its slender bright-green leaves and large oblique persistent cones which resemble those of P. muricata.

Pinus rigida, Miller
Northern Pitch Pine

A three-leaved pine native in Eastern North America from New Brunswick to Georgia. The cones are characteristically clustered into quite large groups and are about one and a half inches long. The tree is easily recognisable by this feature and by the curious habit of developing short, usually short-lived, twigs or branch- lets on the trunk. It is one of the few pines which develop these shoots.

Pinus roxburghii, Sargent (P. longifolia Roxburgh)
Long-leaved Indian Pine

A two-leaved pine native of the outer ranges and lower valleys of the Himalaya. It is an important resin-bearing tree in the East and is much planted for timber in warm countries. Being a sub-tropical species it is quite unsuitable for planting in Britain except in the very mildest places and then only as an ornamental tree. A specimen grown for some years in a sheltered place in these gardens was eventually killed during a very cold winter.

Pinus strobus, L.
Weymouth Pine, Eastern White Pine

This five-leaved pine, of the Eastern United States and Canada, is a most valuable timber tree in America. It was introduced in 1705 by Lord Wevmouth to Longleat - hence its trivial name. It would probably have been a valuable timber and ornamental tree in this country if it were not so susceptible to attack by the Weymouth Pine Aphis (Adelges strobi) and the Pine Rust (Cronartium ribicola). The branches are horizontal and the leaves are bluish-green on their inner surface.

Pinus sylvestris, L.
Scots Pine

This two-leaved pine, our only British native species, is native in all Europe and North and West Asia and can attain a height of 100 feet. It has the widest distribution of any pine. The timber is valuable for many uses and is known commercially as “yellow deal”. Distinguished from P. densiflora by its green young shoots and its glaucous twisted leaves. The characteristic red bark of its upper trunk and branches and its blue-green foliage make it an attractive ornamental tree.

Pinus taeda, L.
Loblolly Pine, Frankincense Pine

A three-leaved pine native in South and East United States from New Jersey to Texas, forming a valuable timber tree. It was introduced into this country in 1741, but is not tolerant of our climate. Its tendency to colonise derelict farmland in South Eastern North America has earned it the nickname of “the Old Field Pine”.

Pinus wallichiana, A. B. Jackson (P. excelsa Wallich. ; P. griffithii McClelland) Himalayan Blue Pine, Bhutan Pine

A very graceful quick-growing five-leaved pine growing to 180 feet in the Himalaya where it is indigenous. Introduced by Lambert in 1823. The leaves are very long and blue-green, and the cones slender, up to 10 inches in length, stalked and curved. It has large horizontal branches developing from the lower part of the trunk and graceful pendant foliage. It makes fine specimen trees. An oil is extracted from the roots which is used as an insect repellant by the coolies in the rice fields: A manna-like exudation of the leaves is eaten by the native peasantry.

The family Pinaceae: Abies | Cedrus | Larix | Picea | Pinus | Pseudolarix | Pseudotsuga | Tsuga

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