If something isn't clarified in this A-Z, please refer to The Guardian's online style guide.
The Oxford English Dictionary online is also very useful.
- Adjective - describes a noun (The pretty girl; the boy is handsome)
- Adverb - describes a verb (He ran quickly; they walked home slowly)
- Apostrophe - denotes possession (David’s cap) or an omission of a letter (I’m fine)
- Colon - indicates a significant pause between two closely related phrases, or indicates the start of a list (The winners are: )
- Comma - denotes a pause in a sentence (Excuse me, are you Margaret Thatcher, or do you just look like her?) and can be used to break up items in a list (I need eggs, flour, milk, and bread)
- Hyphen - a link which joins two words together
- Infinitive - the ‘whole’ form of a verb, constructed in English with ‘to’ (to buy). Splitting an infinitive means breaking up ‘to’ from its verb: 'To boldly go' is a split infinitive
- Noun - denotes a person, place or thing
- Semicolon - indicates a pause shorter than a colon, but longer than a comma, and links two closely related complete phrases
- Verb - denotes an action (They ran away)
Abbreviations and acronyms
Higher Education is littered with acronyms, from the degrees we award to research funding bodies and all manner of technical language. It is important not to assume that the reader will always understand what acronyms mean, especially those referring to internal departments, research centres, and systems.
The first time you use an acronym on a print or web page, consider if it needs to be explained to the audience, and if so write out the name in full initially with the acronym in brackets afterwards: eg, Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). Thereafter, just use the acronym. The exception is where the abbreviation is better known than what it stands for eg BBC, IRA, AIDS.
Full stops should not be used with acronyms or abbreviations. This rule covers all academic awards and degrees (eg, BA, MA, MPhil, BPhil, MEng, EdD, PhD, PGDip, PGCert, etc).
Also omit the full stops in abbreviations such as eg, ie, etc, Dr, Mr, Mrs, am, pm.
Use accents on foreign words, unless the word has been anglicised. Exceptions: précis; exposé (to distinguish from expose).
No commas in addresses:
University of Exeter
The Queen’s Drive
Exeter EX4 4QJ
In the case of department addresses, put the department name before the University.
When used as a noun (eg, the results of something) it’s always ‘effect’. ‘Affect’ is the verb, or when the noun is referring to emotion.
Not A Level or A-level or A-Level
In general, British rather than American conventions of usage and spelling should be used. For example, -ise rather than -ize in words such as emphasise; -ogue rather than -og in words such as catalogue.
If you're unsure whether a spelling is English or American in origin, the Grammarist website is a useful resource to check.
Unless used as part of a company’s name (eg, Procter & Gamble), avoid using ampersands.
Apostrophes are used to show (a) possession (The University’s halls of residence; The Students’ Guild) or (b) omissions (I’ll, They’ll) in words and phrases.
With a singular noun, the apostrophe goes before the <s>:
The cat’s blanket
With a plural noun, the apostrophe goes after the <s>:
The boys’ game
If a word already ends in <s>, then the apostrophe alone signifies possession; no <s> is needed:
In James’ opinion
Their patio wasn’t as impressive as the Jones’
The ladies’ room
A word with an irregular plural still takes the <’s>:
The children’s playground
The people’s votes
The men’s eyes
- Omission of a letter
It’s okay, I’m all right
NB. It’s always means ‘it is’ or 'it has'. If it does not mean this, don’t use an apostrophe.
Apostrophes are never used to denote the plural:
Apples (not Apple’s)
Pears (not Pear’s)
Where not to use apostrophes: Don’t use an apostrophe to form a plural with numbers and letters: 1990s not 1990’s; 3 As at A level, not 3 A’s at A level; CDs not CD’s.