EPSRC CDT in Metamaterials: Solid State Refrigeration using 2D/Meta materials Ref: 2432

About the award


The studentship is part of the UK’s Centre of Doctoral Training in Metamaterials (XM2) based in the Departments of Physics and Engineering on the Streatham Campus in Exeter.  Its aim is to undertake world-leading research, while training scientists and engineers with the relevant research skills and knowledge, and professional attributes for industry and academia.

Please see our website for more details www.exeter.ac.uk/metamaterials

Joint supervisors: Prof. Geoff NashDr. Simon Horsley

Statement of Research

In thermal equilibrium, objects inside a blackbody enclosure absorb and emit radiation at the same rates. However, in some semiconductor devices the emission can be suppressed to below that of the equilibrium level, a phenomena termed "negative luminescence" [1]. One way of achieving NL is to use a type of infrared (IR) LED. When forward biased they emit more IR radiation than they absorb, and so appear hot to an IR observer, but in reverse bias they appear cold. One exciting application of NL devices is for solid state refrigeration [2], where the body to be cooled is placed adjacent to the NL device. The system can then be thought of as a heat pump with photons as the working fluid. Very recently, it has been shown theoretically that the efficiency for cooling can approach the Carnot limit by exploiting optical resonances and near field coupling [3].

The ultimate aspiration of this work is therefore to make the first experimental demonstrate of the theoretically predicted improvement in cooling efficiency by exploiting a hybrid system consisting of 2D materials (e.g. hexagonal boron nitride, black phosphorous) and metamaterial resonant structures [4]. The project, which will involve a mixture of theory, sample processing and experiment, cuts across several XM2 themes and the student will benefit greatly from the expertise and environment of the CDT. As this is a relatively new area, there is the opportunity to produce some truly novel results.

[1] See, for example, G. R. Nash et al, “Long wavelength infrared negative luminescent devices with strong Auger suppression”, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7300 (2003).

[2] P. Berdahl, “Radiant refrigeration by semiconductor diodes”, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1369 (1985).

[3] Kaifeng Chen et al, Parthiban Santhanam, and Shanhui Fan, “Near-Field Enhanced Negative Luminescent Refrigeration”, Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 024014 (2016).

[4] P. Q. Liu, I. J. Luxmoore, S. A. Mikhailov, N. A. Savostianova, F. Valmorra, J. Faist, and G. R. Nash, “Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons”, Nature Communications 6, 8969 (2015).

About XM2

Metamaterials are fabricated microstructures having properties beyond those found in nature. They are emerging as an important new class of materials with applications in many technology areas, from energy harvesting, through perfect imaging, to the much-hyped ‘cloaking’. Having recruited over 50 new PhD researchers in its first three years, the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training (XM2) hosted by the University of Exeter (www.exeter.ac.uk/metamaterials) will admit its fourth cohort of 14-18 PhD students in September 2017.

Exeter has a well-established and strong track record of relevant research, spanning a unique mix of interests. We will run projects in the following fields (see our list of themes for full details)

  • Optical, Infra-red and THz Photonics and Plasmonics
  • Microwave Metamaterials
  • Magnonics, Spintronics and Magnetic Metamaterials
  • Acoustic and Fluid-dynamical Metamaterials
  • Wave Theory and Spatial Transformations
  • Graphene and other 2D Materials, and related Devices
  • Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites
  • Biological and Bio-inspired Metamaterials
  • Quantum Metamaterials

The first year of the studentship includes an assessed, stand alone project, and a substantial programme of training. Students will choose from a wide range of taught modules, and participate in academic and personal development skills-based workshops, together with creativity events and conference-style meetings. The cohort will also be expected to disseminate their results to the international community via high-impact publications and international conferences. They will spend time working with our academic and industrial partners.  Full details of the programme are available here, or email us for a copy of our prospectus.

The University of Exeter is a top 10 UK university, in the top 1% of universities globally, and a member of the elite Russell Group of institutions. The University has committed itself to a substantial expansion in its science base and within Physics and Engineering, over £10m has been spent on infrastructure since 2008 and around 30 new academic staff have been appointed across the Centre's themes.


Application deadline:31st July 2017
Number of awards:1
Value:4-year studentship: UK/EU students, includes tuition fees and an annual stipend equivalent to current Research Council rates (14,553 for 2017-18)
Duration of award:per year
Contact: Prof. Alastair Hibbins (Admissions Tutor)metamaterials@exeter.ac.uk

How to apply

Application criteria

During the application process you will need to upload the documents listed below. Please prepare these before starting the application process.

  • A statement describing why you would like to study for a PhD in Physics or Engineering,
  • A statement describing why you are considering a PhD programme that offers a cohort-based doctoral training model,
  • An academic CV,
  • A document outlining your research interests and any relevant expertise,
  • Degree transcript(s) giving information about the qualification awarded, the modules taken during the study period, and the marks for each module taken.

In addition, we advise that you upload a cover letter or provide further information about your your preferred area(s) of study within the XM2 themes and/or your interest in a particular project, and also whether you've been in contact with a particular supervisor. You will be asked to provide the contact details of two academic referees.

Please note that of the 25 projects advertised we expect, as a Centre, to fill 14-18 posts only.


Application procedure

Applications should be made via the Apply Online system.  Please email metamaterials@exeter.ac.uk if you have any queries about this process. 

You will need to specify that you are making a Research application, with a keyword search of Metamaterials, specifying the College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, and Full Time.  Please then select the course, Physics / Engineering (CDT) - Metamaterials - Doctor of Philosophy - (Full Time) with the start date September 2017.

Shortlisting and interviews

Applications will be reviewed by members of the XM2 management board and candidates will be short-listed against a set of agreed criteria to ensure quality while maintaining diversity. Failure to include all the the elements above may result in rejection. Criteria will include:


  • Excellence in a lower degree in a relevant discipline;
  • Excellence in written and oral skills in English;
  • Evidence of knowledge of XM2 ethos, research themes and/or supervisors.


  • Specialist knowledge about one or more XM2 topics;
  • Research outputs (e.g. papers) and/or has undertaken training in research methodology (e.g. undergraduate research projects);
  • Ability to work collaboratively

Short-listed candidates will be interviewed by a panel of two academic members of staff drawn from the management board. If successful, a second interview will be undertaken by the potential academic supervisors for the student concerned. Offers are normally made shortly after a successful second interview.