EPSRC CDT in Metamaterials (PhD studentship): Design and Manufacture of Broadband 3D Multilayer Metamaterials for Microwave and mm-wave Application Ref: 2816

About the award

The studentship is part of the UK’s Centre of Doctoral Training in Metamaterials (XM2) based in the Departments of Physics and Engineering on the Streatham Campus in Exeter.  Its aim is to undertake world-leading research, while training scientists and engineers with the relevant research skills and knowledge, and professional attributes for industry and academia.

XM2 studentships are of value around £90,000, which includes £11,000 towards the research project (travel, consumables, equipment etc.), tuition fees, and an annual, tax-free stipend of approximately £14,500 per year for UK/EU students. In addition, subject to final agreement with the project partner, it is expected that this studentship will attract a further top up of £2,000 per year.

Exeter has a well-established and strong track record of relevant research, and prospective students can consider projects from a wide variety of fields:

  • Acoustic and Fluid-dynamical Metamaterials
  • Biological and Bio-inspired Metamaterials
  • Graphene and other 2D Materials, and related Devices
  • Magnonics, Spintronics and Magnetic Metamaterials
  • Microwave Metamaterials
  • Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites
  • Optical, Infra-red and THz Photonics and Plasmonics
  • Quantum Metamaterials
  • Wave Theory and Spatial Transformations

Please visit www.exeter.ac.uk/metamaterials to learn more about our centre and see the full list of projects that we have on offer this year.

International students are welcome to apply: fees and project costs will be paid, but the stipend can only be provided in exceptional circumstances.  We encourage international scholarship applicants or recipients to contact us directly prior to making their application (metamaterials@exeter.ac.uk).

Statement of Research

Joint supervisors: Prof Alastair P Hibbins and Prof J Roy Sambles.

Industrial supervisor: John Davies (Chief Engineer, Thales UK Ltd).

Objective: To develop broadband metamaterial designs for antenna and radome applications using additive manufacturing techniques.

The use of additive manufacturing techniques to create novel broadband metamaterial designs is of great interest for various applications in the microwave, millimetre wave range and beyond. Metamaterials typically suffer from narrow bandwidths, are inhomogeneous and have incident angle and polarisation dependence. There is a need to overcome these obstacles to enable better performance of metamaterials and increase areas for application. Three dimensional and /or multi-layer metamaterials offer a way to overcome the limitations of conventional two dimensional metamaterials. In addition, 3D metamaterials promise better efficiency for metamaterials with a prospect for lower permittivity structures for radome applications.

Fabrication of 3D materials are currently conducted using multilayer electron beam lithography or direct laser writing which limits the size and frequency of operation of fabricated devices. Additive manufacturing techniques will be studied with the aim to obtain convenient fabrication techniques comparable to current electron beam processes in order to realise larger 3D metamaterial structures at reasonable cost for industrial application.

Modelling of 3D metamaterials also poses a challenge. Enhanced modelling techniques are required to accurately predict the performance of structures designed. Full wave methods and quasi-optical techniques will be explored to realise adequate models for prediction of measured results from fabricated samples.

The initial primary tasks will comprise:

1. Investigation of broadband metamaterials, potentially via the use of multilayer or 3d metamaterials that enables multiple resonances to be cascaded to extend the bandwidth response. Emphasis will be on relatively constant constitutive parameters across the operating frequency band.

2. Investigation of effective dielectric constant of metamaterials embedded in a substrate.  It is of interest to deploy relatively low dielectric constant materials for antennas and radomes. Typically, materials with dielectric constants of 4 or less are used to construct antennas and radomes in either a homogeneous or multilayer sandwich structure. Embedding metamaterials in dielectric substrates offer the possibility of reducing the effective permittivity of the substrates. Following on from the previous task, a broadband arrangement of metamaterials should be embedded in a chosen substrate to observe the impact on the effective dielectric constant.

3. Investigation of manufacturing techniques for 3d Metamaterials. The use of conventional and innovative manufacturing techniques for metamaterials is also of interest. Low cost production processes should be investigated and the role of additive manufacturing should be highlighted in the application of new manufacturing techniques. The role of any other relevant emerging technologies for the prototyping and manufacture of antennas and radomes with metamaterials will be of great benefit to the aerospace industry and is worth investigating.

About XM2

Metamaterials are fabricated microstructures having properties beyond those found in nature. They are an important new class of electromagnetic and acoustic materials with applications in many technology areas: energy storage and improved efficiency, imaging, communications, sensing and the much-hyped ‘cloaking’. Having recruited nearly 70 new PhD researchers in its first four years, the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training (XM2) hosted by the University of Exeter (www.exeter.ac.uk/metamaterials) will admit its fifth cohort of PhD students in September 2018.

The first year of the studentship includes an assessed, stand alone project, and a substantial programme of training. Students will choose from a wide range of taught modules, and participate in academic and personal development skills-based workshops, together with creativity events and conference-style meetings. The cohort will also be expected to disseminate their results to the international community via high-impact publications and international conferences. They will spend time working with our academic and industrial partners.  Full details of the programme are available here, or download a copy of our prospectus.

The University of Exeter combines world class research with excellent student satisfaction. It is a member of the Russell Group of leading research-intensive universities. Formed in 1955, the University has over 20,000 students from more than 130 different countries. Its success is built on a strong partnership with its students and a clear focus on high performance. Recent breakthroughs to come out of Exeter's research include the identification and treatment of new forms of diabetes and the creation of the world's most transparent, lightweight and flexible conductor of electricity. Exeter is ranked amongst the UK’s top 10 universities in the Higher Education league tables produced by the Times and the Sunday Times. It is also ranked amongst the world’s top 200 universities in the QS and Times Higher Education rankings.

How to apply

Application criteria

During the application process you will need to upload the documents listed below. Please prepare these before starting the application process.

  • A statement describing why you would like to study for a PhD in Physics or Engineering,
  • A statement describing why you are considering a PhD programme that offers a cohort-based doctoral training model,
  • An academic CV,
  • A cover letter that discusses your preferred area(s) of study and/or your interest in a particular project/supervisor,
  • A document outlining your research interests and any relevant expertise,
  • Degree transcript(s) giving information about the qualification awarded, the modules taken during the study period, and the marks for each module taken,
  • The contact details of two academic referees.

Please note that of all the projects advertised we expect, as a Centre, to fill 15-20 posts only.

Shortlisting and interviews

Applications will be reviewed by members of the XM2 management board and candidates will be short-listed against a set of agreed criteria to ensure quality while maintaining diversity. Failure to include all the the elements above may result in rejection. Criteria will include:


  • Excellence in a lower degree in a relevant discipline;
  • Excellence in written and oral skills in English;
  • Evidence of knowledge of XM2 ethos, research themes and/or supervisors.


  • Specialist knowledge about one or more XM2 topics;
  • Research outputs (e.g. papers) and/or has undertaken training in research methodology (e.g. undergraduate research projects);
  • Ability to work collaboratively

Short-listed candidates will be interviewed by a panel of two academic members of staff drawn from the management board. If successful, a second interview will be undertaken by the potential academic supervisors for the student concerned. Offers are normally made shortly after a successful second interview.



Application deadline:31st May 2018
Number of awards:1
Value:Approximately £90,000, including research and travel budget, tuition fees and annual stipend (approximately £14,500 plus £2,000 top-up (tbc) payable to UK or EU students only)
Duration of award:per year
Contact: Prof. Alastair Hibbins (Admissions Tutor) metamaterials@exeter.ac.uk