Study information

# Fluid Dynamics and CFD - 2023 entry

MODULE TITLE CREDIT VALUE Fluid Dynamics and CFD 15 ENG3005 Unknown
DURATION: TERM 1 2 3
DURATION: WEEKS 11
DESCRIPTION - summary of the module content

Fluid dynamics is a key element of mechanical engineering, with applications to automotive and aerospace engineering in particular. However the governing equations of fluid mechanics are complex and difficult to solve for realistic engineering problems. Computational Fluid Mechanics is the application of computational analysis to solve the equations of fluid mechanics. In this module you will learn about the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations which govern fluid mechanics, and the basics of their solution through CFD, together with applications in engineering including exterior aerodynamics, aerofoils, and wind turbines.

The module is developed around two pieces of project work (worth 30% each) together with a short exam (1.5hrs, 40% of marks). The first project analyses boundary layers through experiment and numerical solution using Python, whilst in the second you will look at aspects of wind turbine design, in particular the properties of an aerofoil (experiment) and CFD analysis of the turbine structure.

AIMS - intentions of the module

By the end of the course you will be able to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for simple analytical problems such as flow in a duct or pipe. You will understand the basic principles of boundary layer theory, turbulence and exterior aerodynamics. You will be able to use CFD and commercial CFD programs to analyse engineering problems and have gained further experience with experimental fluid dynamics, in particular the use of wind tunnels. Finally, you will be able to apply your knowledge to analyse engineering problems such as aerofoils and vehicular aerodynamics.

The Navier-Stokes equations: An overview and derivation of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow, in differential and integral forms. Analytical solution of differential form in 1D for simple problems. Von Karman integral method. Other regimes of flow (e.g. compressible). Boundary layer theory; laminar and turbulent, Blasius solution for laminar boundary layers using numerical methods.

Turbulent flows: basic characteristics and statistical analysis. Exterior aerodynamics around simple objects and vehicles. Basics of aerofoil theory; lift and drag and effects of design. An overview of Reynolds averaging and turbulence modelling.

Introduction to CFD: Basics of computational fluid dynamics using the finite volume method; implicit and explicit algorithms, differencing schemes, matrix inversion and solution algorithms (SIMPLE). Simple RANS turbulence models (k-e) and wall modelling. Best practice in CFD solution.

Fluids in renewable energy applications: Wind turbines; basic design of HAWT, actuator disk/line modelling and application in CFD. Resource characterisation and modelling.

INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES (ILOs) (see assessment section below for how ILOs will be assessed)
 ILO # Intended Learning Outcome AHEP* ILO - MEng AHEP ILO - BEng ILO #1 Apply the Navier-Stokes equations to derive solutions for simple cases of fluid flow (2d, Cartesian coordinates) and understand the extension of such techniques to more complex cases; SM2m, SM3m, SM5m. EA2m, EA3m SM1p, SM2p, SM3p, EA2p ILO #2 Recognise the types of flow generated by external flow around various shaped bodies across the range of Reynolds numbers; estimate forces on these types of flow, and power/energy requirements to overcome these forces and losses; SM1p, SM2p, SM3p, EA2p, Ea3p ILO #3 Comprehend the von Karman integral method and be able to apply it to calculating forces on bluff bodies; SM1p, SM2p, SM3p, EA2p, EA3p ILO #4 Understand, in detail, boundary layer structure and modelling; solution of the Blasius equations using numerical techniques and Python; SM1p, SM2p, SM3p, EA2p, EA3p ILO #5 Explain the key points of turbulent flow and use statistical methods to describe properties of turbulence; SM1p, SM2p, SM3p, EA2p, EA3p ILO #6 Explain FV method for CFD, basics of numerical methods and RANS k-e turbulence modelling, apply best practice to solve engineering problems using commercial CFD codes; SM1p, SM2p, SM3p, EA2p, EA3p ILO #7 Describe aerodynamic design of HAWT turbines and design tradeoffs; perform blade calculations and discuss siting and wind resource modelling; SM6m SM1p, SM2p, SM3p, EA2p, EA3p, D4p, D5p ILO #8 Demonstrate increased ability to analyse information from a variety of sources, conduct formal calculations on engineering systems with accuracy; G3m D6p, G3p ILO #9 Model complex engineering systems using computational methods and using preexisting codes; D6p, G3p ILO #10 Show improved independent learning skills, analyse problems logically and mathematically, and present your results in an appropriate way. *Engineering Council Accreditation of Higher Education Programmes (AHEP) ILOs for MEng and BEng Degrees

SYLLABUS PLAN - summary of the structure and academic content of the module

1: Fundamental Equations of Fluid Dynamics:

Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow, differential and integral forms. Analytical solution of differential form in 1-d for simple problems. Von Karman integral method.

Other regimes of flow (eg incompressible). Reynolds averaging and turbulence. Boundary layer theory; laminar and turbulent, Blasius solution for laminar b.l. using numerical methods.

2: Turbulence:

Basic characteristics and statistical analysis. Exterior aerodynamics around simple objects and vehicles. Basics of aerofoil theory; lift and drag and effects of design.

3: Computational Fluid Dynamics:

Basics of computational fluid dynamics using finite volume method; implicit and explicit algorithms, differencing schemes, matrix inversion and solution algorthms (SIMPLE).

Simple RANS turbulence models (k-e) and wall modelling. Best practice in CFD solution.

4: Wind turbines:

Basic design of HAWT, actuator disk/line modelling and application in CFD. Resource characterisation and modelling.

LEARNING AND TEACHING
LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND TEACHING METHODS (given in hours of study time)
 Scheduled Learning & Teaching Activities Guided Independent Study 50 100
DETAILS OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND TEACHING METHODS
 Category Hours of study time Description Scheduled Learning and Teaching Activities 20 Lectures Scheduled Learning and Teaching Activities 10 Tutorials Scheduled Learning and Teaching Activities 10 CFD Tutorials Scheduled Learning and Teaching Activities 10 Laboratory Guided Independent Study 100 Reading lecture notes; working exercises

ASSESSMENT
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT - for feedback and development purposes; does not count towards module grade
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT (% of credit)
 Coursework Written Exams 60 40
DETAILS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Form of Assessment % of Credit Size of Assessment (e.g. duration/length) ILOs Assessed Feedback Method
Exam 40 1.5 hours (Winter) 1-3, 5
Coursework 30 30 hours 1-5
Coursework 30 30 hours 5-10

DETAILS OF RE-ASSESSMENT (where required by referral or deferral)
Original Form of Assessment Form of Re-assessment ILOs Re-assessed Time Scale for Re-reassessment
All above Exam (1.5 hours) 1-3, 5 August Ref/Def Period

RE-ASSESSMENT NOTES

Reassessment will be by a single written exam only worth 100% of the module. For deferred candidates, the mark will be uncapped. For referred candidates, the mark will be capped at 40%.

RESOURCES
INDICATIVE LEARNING RESOURCES - The following list is offered as an indication of the type & level of
information that you are expected to consult. Further guidance will be provided by the Module Convener

Reading list for this module:

Type Author Title Edition Publisher Year ISBN
Set Douglas, J.F., Gasiorek, J.M., Swaffield, J.A. Fluid Mechanics 6th Pearson/Prentice Hall 2011 10: 0273717723
Set Versteeg H K and Malalasekera V An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: The finite volume method 2nd Pearson/Prentice Hall 2007 978-0131274983
CREDIT VALUE ECTS VALUE 15 7.5
PRE-REQUISITE MODULES None None
NQF LEVEL (FHEQ) AVAILABLE AS DISTANCE LEARNING 6 No Thursday 16th December 2021 Friday 27th January 2023
KEY WORDS SEARCH None Defined

Please note that all modules are subject to change, please get in touch if you have any questions about this module.