Study information

# Electromagnetism II - 2023 entry

MODULE TITLE CREDIT VALUE Electromagnetism II 15 PHY3051 Prof Jacopo Bertolotti (Coordinator)
DURATION: TERM 1 2 3
DURATION: WEEKS 11
 Number of Students Taking Module (anticipated) 60
DESCRIPTION - summary of the module content

This is the second electromagnetism module taken by Physics students. It builds on PHY2021 (Electromagnetism I) and covers fundamental physics that students are capable of directly observing. The early part of the module provides a brief recap and reinforces the difficult material treated at the end of PHY2021. The Maxwell equations are stated and manipulated to obtain the wave equation, and the form of the solutions discussed. The dielectric and magnetic properties of solids are then introduced, with emphasis on the frequency dependence of their real and imaginary components, and the consequences for wave propagation. Wave propagation at interfaces between dissimilar materials is considered, leading to derivation of Fresnel reflection and transmission coefficients. The need to guide electromagnetic waves of different frequency is discussed, and guiding by transmission lines, waveguides and optical fibers is introduced. Finally the electromagnetic fields generated by charges moving with uniform or oscillatory velocity are discussed. A number of interesting physical phenomena are considered that are important in a wide variety of areas and in many key technologies. This is a core subject for Physics programmes and is supported by Stage 3 tutorials and problems classes.

AIMS - intentions of the module
The module aims to develop students' understanding of Maxwell's equations and their applications including some advanced topics. Specifically, students will get to the point where they can handle the fundamentals of fields due to moving charges and also to begin to explore the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.

INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES (ILOs) (see assessment section below for how ILOs will be assessed)
A student who has passed this module should be able to:

Module Specific Skills and Knowledge:
1. describe all the fundamental aspects of electromagnetism;
2. explain and solve problems involving the magnetic properties of materials;
3. explain and solve problems involving the dielectric properties of materials;
4. explain many aspects of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter;
5. calculate the effect of such interactions using appropriate vector mathematics;
6. calculate the fields of moving charges;
7. solve problems requiring application of Maxwell's equations to a variety of situations as outlined in the syllabus below;

Discipline Specific Skills and Knowledge:
8. use vector analysis to solve problems in science and engineering;

Personal and Key Transferable / Employment Skills and Knowledge:
9. develop and present a coherent solution to a problem;
10. self-evaluate, check and correct solutions to problems.
SYLLABUS PLAN - summary of the structure and academic content of the module
I. Maxwell's Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
1. Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field.
2. Scalar and vector potentials.
3. The equation of continuity.
4. The wave equation and wave solutions to Maxwell equations.
5. Linear, circular and elliptical polarization states of a wave.
6. Energy of a wave and the Poynting theorem.
7. The electromagnetic stress tensor and the momentum of an electromagnetic field.
8. Gauge invariance and Gauge fixing. The Weyl, Lorenz and Coulomb gauges.
9. Covariance of Maxwell equations and Lorentz transforms
10. Field generated by a moving charge. The Liénard-Wiechert potentials.
11. Larmor formula
II. Electromagnetic materials
1. Polarization of dielectric materials. Multipole expansion.
2. Electric susceptibility and the displacement field.
3. Clausius-Mossotti relation.
4. Boundary conditions for the electric and the displacement fields.
5. Magnetic dipoles and magnetization.
6. Magnetic susceptibility and the magnetic field.
7. Boundary conditions for the magnetic induction and the magnetic fields.
8. Larmor precession.
9. Paramagnetism and Curie law.
10. Ferromagnetism, spontaneous magnetization, and magnetic hysteresis.
III. Electromagnetism at boundaries and guiding of waves
1. Waves in non-conductive materials.
2. Waves in conductive materials and the skin effect.
3. Dispersive media and the group velocity.
4. Fresnel coefficients and their consequences (Snell's law, Brewster angle, total internal reflection).
5. Reflection and transmission from a conductive material.
6. Transmission lines and impedance.
7. The telegrapher's equation.
8. The rectangular waveguide. TE and TM modes of a waveguide.
9. Optical fibres.
IV. Wave propagation
1. Metals as plasmas, and the plasma frequency.
2. Plasma oscillations and plasmons.
3. Surface plasma polaritons.
4. Anisotropic media and the susceptibility tensor.
5. Biaxial and uniaxial media. Waveplates.
6. Double refraction.
7. Nonlinear media and the nonlinear polarization.
8. Nonlinear susceptibility.
9. Phase matching.
10. Wave diffraction. The Fresnel (paraxial) approximation and the Fraunhofer (far field) approximation.
LEARNING AND TEACHING
LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND TEACHING METHODS (given in hours of study time)
 Scheduled Learning & Teaching Activities Guided Independent Study 25 125
DETAILS OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND TEACHING METHODS
 Category Hours of study time Description Scheduled learning & teaching activities 20 hours 20×1-hour lectures Scheduled learning & teaching activities 2 hours 2×1-hour problems/revision classes Scheduled learning & teaching activities 3 hours 3×1-hour tutorials Guided independent study 30 hours 5×6-hour self-study packages Guided independent study 16 hours 4×4-hour problem sets Guided independent study 79 hours Reading, private study and revision

 4×4-hour problem sets

ASSESSMENT
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT - for feedback and development purposes; does not count towards module grade
Form of Assessment Size of Assessment (e.g. duration/length) ILOs Assessed Feedback Method
Guided self-study (0%) 5×6-hour packages (fortnightly) 1-10 Discussion in tutorials
4 × Problems sets (0%) 4 hours per set (fortnightly) 1-10 Solutions discussed in problems classes.

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT (% of credit)
 Coursework Written Exams 0 100
DETAILS OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Form of Assessment % of Credit Size of Assessment (e.g. duration/length) ILOs Assessed Feedback Method
Final Examination 100% 2 hours 30 minutes (January) 1-10 Mark via MyExeter, collective feedback via ELE and solutions.

DETAILS OF RE-ASSESSMENT (where required by referral or deferral)
Original Form of Assessment Form of Re-assessment ILOs Re-assessed Time Scale for Re-assessment
Whole module Written examination (100%) 1-10 August/September assessment period

Re-assessment is not available except when required by referral or deferral.

RE-ASSESSMENT NOTES
An original assessment that is based on both examination and coursework, tests, etc., is considered as a single element for the purpose of referral; i.e., the referred mark is based on the referred examination only, discounting all previous marks. In the event that the mark for a referred assessment is lower than that of the original assessment, the original higher mark will be retained.

Physics Modules with PHY Codes
Referred examinations will only be available in PHY3064, PHYM004 and those other modules for which the original assessment includes an examination component - this information is given in individual module descriptors.
RESOURCES
INDICATIVE LEARNING RESOURCES - The following list is offered as an indication of the type & level of
information that you are expected to consult. Further guidance will be provided by the Module Convener
ELE: