Environment and Sustainability Institute News
Keep up to date with the latest news from the Environment and Sustainability Institute.
If you want to know what the biggest environmental challenge we face is, ask 100 15-year-olds ...
The Bishop drops in to find out what we're doing.
A pioneering three-year project to learn some of the secrets of Scotland’s basking sharks by using satellite tag technology has shown an area off the west coast to be truly important for these giant fish.
The harmful effects of climate change on wildlife habitats can been counteracted by localised land management, a new research paper has suggested.
The ESI's drones-expert has been talking to MPs and Lords about the emergent technology's use in research.
Exhibition featuring ex-ESI creative affiliate highlights the overlap between art and science.
Threats to species can come from a huge variety of sources, which is why it's worth looking hard and looking often.
A key figure in establishing and building the University of Exeter’s Cornwall campuses has been awarded an MBE for services to the community.
Warmer temperatures increase biodiversity and photosynthesis in phytoplankton, researchers at the University of Exeter and Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) have found.
It is not only size that matters when planning a protected area, other spatial features such as shape are also critical to the number of animal species found there.
A new study found that phytoplankton - microscopic water-borne plants - can rapidly evolve tolerance to elevated water temperatures.
An ESI professor's new book adds to the debate around climate change, globalisation, rural and urban poverty and inequality.
Seven ESI researchers to present at prestigious annual ecology meeting.
Festival of Social Science: A fascinating insight into social science and its influence on our lives
Exeter academics will be demonstrating how our research is investigating the key issues in modern day life at a series of events.
A new study has demonstrated that lizards do not cope well with the climate predicted for the year 2100.
University of Exeter Politics lecturer Dr Joanie Willett is hosting a series of community discussions designed to collect information on what various members of the public think the British constitution should look like.
An ESI academic is invited to tell Parliament what she thinks.
What exactly does the ESI do, and why does it do it?
Workshop examines the neglected area of health and wellbeing in fishing-dependent communities.
Researchers at the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus will today welcome actors from Kenyan charity, S.A.F.E. Kenya.
An exciting cultural event brings communities together to celebrate the unique landscape, history and culture of Goonhilly Downs.
Underwater noise in the marine environment is the focus of a new UK-wide research partnership.
An exciting new partnership in Cornwall is hoping to use academic research to inform the management of the county’s world-class natural habitats.
The humble butterfly could hold the key to unlocking new techniques to make solar energy cheaper and more efficient, pioneering new research has shown.
Extreme weather and coastal communities: theatrical project twins Cornwall with Kenya.
Fish feast boosts penguin numbers.
A chance to see and - ask questions about - joint projects between ESI researchers and creative practitioners.
ESI Director part of influential international group considering Antarctica's future and biodiversity.
Summer workshop of national mathematicians' group will share innovative methods for collecting and analysing ecological data.
One of the world's leading environmental historians talks about the many narratives that combine to make a place meaningful.
ESI-RANE Creative Exchange Programme Artist affiliates awarded Research and Development Funding.
The Central African country of Gabon is providing an invaluable nesting ground for a vulnerable species of sea turtle
Pond owners are being urged not to use garden chemicals, or to release goldfish into ponds.
Sophisticated radar on the ESI's roof is giving researchers new insights into the specific factors affecting bird migration.
Research published today recommends a new approach to the difficult tradeoffs that environmental managers face when choosing between environmental sustainability and profitability.
University of Exeter researchers are part of the biodiversity research team of a new EUR 17 million EU Horizon 2020 funded project
Marine ecosystems can be changed by night-time artificial lighting according to new research.
A new, interactive website - intended to be a central platform for environment and sustainability in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly - has launched.
Extinct British genes have been preserved in the stoat population of New Zealand, a new study has found.
The University of Exeter and the Marine Conservation Society are joining forces in an exciting new satellite tracking project to tag and follow basking sharks in Cornish waters.
ESI researcher talks to BBC Radio 4 about the possibilities offered by disruptive new technology.
The quest to discover how future climate change will impact the formidable Indian monsoon phenomenon could find the answer rooted in the prehistoric past.
What do you get when you add nearly 100 school-pupils to a world-class environmental research institute?
Part-night lighting, a proposed mitigation option to reduce the negative impacts of light pollution, is unlikely to benefit bats, a study published this week confirms.
The artist, the research scientist and the attempt to grow bananas in the UK.
Artificial night time light from sources such as street lamps affects the growth and flowering of plants and even the number of insects that depend on those plants for food.
Findings from a new study that set out to investigate the evolution of immune defences could boost the development of industrial bacteria that are immune to specific viral infections.
The low-cost, DIY people's science that could change the way research is done.
Professor Tapas Mallick used his Inaugural Lecture to describe how cheaper, more efficient solar power could transform the lives of billions.
Artificial sky glow around the world has been quantified for the first time by researchers using a global network of sky quality monitors.
A new study led by the University of Exeter has identified two major foraging grounds of the Mediterranean green turtle
Great minds thinking alike: the University and Eden turn the idea of collaboration into a reality.
Inspiring words from a world-leader in responsible mining.
When it comes to swooping-and-snatching, not all gulls are created equal.
Pioneering new research could pave the way for solar energy to be converted into household electricity more cheaply than ever before.
ESI workshops are encouraging new things to do with not-very-old clothes.
Some people have been looking forward to going back to work more than others.
Our academics, researchers, professional staff and creative affiliates are unlikely to be working much in the next couple of weeks, although two will be on ITV at peak time over Christmas ...
The ESI recently hosted a day's conference organised by the Institute of Cornish Studies (ICS).
Many species of animals do weird and wonderful things during the colder months.
The University of Exeter has today received a £5 million funding boost to create its next generation of world-class science facilities.
A ground breaking research project aims to clean up water from a Cornish tin mine, using algae to harvest the precious heavy metals and produce biofuel.
Researchers from the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus have completed their post-mortem of a Bluefin tuna.
University of Exeter researchers have played a crucial role in creating a comprehensive new report indicating that the global risk from extreme weather is set to intensify.
The University of Exeter has worked with Natural England on a project that helps to target conservation action.
A team of researchers from the University of Exeter will be heading to London on Friday to showcase their research on badgers and meerkats as part in the Great British Bioscience Festival.
ESI researcher moderates a session on young people in the Arctic at a major international conference in Iceland.
Bird populations across Europe have experienced sharp declines over the past 30 years, with the majority of losses from the most common species, say researchers from the University of Exeter.
The people of Cornwall get their chance to say what they would do if given the chance to run the county and shape its future.
Local school and college teachers and lecturers meet ESI researchers to discuss collaboration.
Another ESI researcher has appeared on BBC Radio 4's 'Shared Planet' with Monty Don.
Renewables researchers help bring the world's best together for major conference in India.
ESI hosts signing of £200m Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Growth Deal
Oceanic fronts - areas where nutrients are drawn together resulting in foraging hotspots - should be priority regions for conservation efforts.
ESI researchers take the opportunity to explain their work in no more than 120 seconds.
The ESI's Director, Professor Kevin J Gaston, joined - among others - Monty Don and George Monbiot on BBC Radio 4's 'Shared Planet'.
The ESI recently hosted meetings with Environment Agency (EA) colleagues to explore collaborative opportunities and improve understanding of each other’s work.
The Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI)’s Politics contingent has been in demand on the BBC.
Newly-published research highlights the variety of impacts light pollution has on the marine environment.
Protected areas such as nature reserves and national parks do conserve biodiversity and more action is needed to ensure safeguards are in place to preserve them, according to a new international study.
Researchers at Plymouth Marine Laboratory and the University of Exeter have combined two innovative technologies to probe the mystery of how seabirds locate food hotspots across vast tracts of ocean.
Scientists at the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus are seeking members of the public to help conduct research into how certain plants, animals and other environmental factors in and around homes are perceived by Cornish residents.
A PhD student has published new research into how improvements to Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BiPV) systems can mean more efficient, lower cost energy.
His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh visited the National Lobster Hatchery in Padstow recently where he learnt about the charity’s pioneering research work with the University of Exeter.
Cornwall could lead the way in developing green techniques to help European mining companies extract more scarce and valuable metals and significantly reduce their environmental impact.
The UK’s burgeoning winemaking industry will benefit from new research to assess climate change's impacts on Cornwall’s vineyards.
A Falmouth company aims to beat off international competition by offering a more accurate method of characterising magnets for its global client base.
A new report by the University of Exeter and the Marine Conservation Society (MCS) takes stock of where and when UK jellyfish occur in UK seas for the first time in over 40 years.
Breaking the mould of inherited family characteristics could help you survive in a fast-changing world, scientists have discovered.
A new partnership between businesses and academics in Cornwall could revolutionise the way electric vehicles (EVs) are marketed in the UK.
Mathematical algorithms used to control everyday household items such as washing machines could hold the key to winning the fight for conservation, a new study has claimed.
Biologists from the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute at the Penryn Campus are assessing the impact of the National Lobster Hatchery’s activities on wild lobsters around Cornwall’s coast.
Cornwall is home to the UK’s first scientific facility dedicated to research involving Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), with a series of talks taking place on July 10-11 to mark the exciting launch.
Researchers from the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) are collaborating with Cornwall’s leading vegetable growing company to increase its courgette yields by understanding more about how bees and other insects pollinate the plants.
Falmouth residents are being sought by a student at the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus who is conducting research into the causes of moth declines.
Seas between the islands of Skye and Mull on Scotland’s west coast are highly important for basking sharks, according to a report published today by Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH).
A team of intrepid experts are preparing to set the wheels in motion in their quest to bring maths to life for Cornish schoolchildren.
Eight University of Exeter academics feature in an authoritative new list of the most highly cited researchers, published this week by Thompson Reuters. This places Exeter 6th in the UK.
‘Trawler Trash’ a unique installation created by artist Liz Franklin and Cornish Yr 10 students has been unveiled at the University of Exeter's Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) on the Penryn Campus.
Fishing vessels have a far bigger ecological footprint than previously thought, according to research which tracked the movement and behaviour of seabirds using GPS devices.
The impact of weather-related disasters and how humans can prepare for climate change in the future will be discussed by a panel including Professor Katrina Brown of the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) at the Hay Festival of Literature and the Arts this week.
Students from secondary schools across Cornwall joined researchers and postgraduate students from the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) to help celebrate the Institute’s highly successful first year.
The soils under Britain's allotments are significantly healthier than intensively farmed soils, researchers have found.
UAVs in Environmental Research, a two-day scientific meeting, takes place 10-11 July 2014 at the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute.
Eleven scientists from Geography and the Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter, will be attending the Resilience2014 Conference.
A new study by a University of Exeter researcher has shed light on how an estimated one million-strong population of wild camels thriving in Australia’s remote outback have become reviled as pests and culled on a large scale.
A new group designed to give key providers in Cornwall’s burgeoning outdoor activity sector a collective voice and ensure that they operate with the highest regard for the environment, has been launched.
An ambitious project exploring the shared experiences of flood-hit and vulnerable communities in Cornwall and Kenya has been announced today, with the aim of building resilience for those affected by climate change and extreme weather events.
Cornwall’s illustrious mining heritage has provided the inspiration for a special collaboration between a local artist and University of Exeter scientist.
New research led by the University of Exeter suggests that rising global temperatures will increase the quantity of the key greenhouse gas methane emitted from freshwater ecosystems to the Earth’s atmosphere – which could in turn lead to further warming.
Pond owners across Cornwall are being sought by a student at the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus who is conducting research into whether two deadly frog diseases can be found in the county.
Scientists have created an ingenious computer model that simulates a honey bee colony over the course of several years.
Understanding microclimate could improve wildlife conservation management in a warming world, say researchers
Understanding the relevance of microclimate for wildlife may improve the effectiveness of conservation management in a warming world; say a group of researchers who have this week published an article discussing the topic in the popular conservation magazine, British Wildlife.
Urban development and the growth of cities across Europe have resulted in a continental trend towards increasing brightness of night-time light.
Diseases that are common in managed honeybee colonies are now widespread in the UK’s wild bumblebees, according to research published in Nature.
Creative practitioners are invited to the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) on Monday 7 April to learn more about how they can work with universities and academic researchers to support and develop their creative practice.
The last large populations of the leatherback turtle are at risk because their migratory routes in the Atlantic Ocean overlap with the locations of industrial fisheries, a new study shows.
Specialists in marine resources and artificial reefs have gathered at the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) to discuss the design and creation of an innovative new marine reef in the English Channel.
Falmouth Aquarium, in collaboration with the University of Exeter, is hosting a series of public lectures from January which will see leading researchers discussing topical issues from climate change and food security to how we can reduce our own individual energy usage.
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) is celebrating the launch of the Centre for Environmental Arts and Humanities (CEAH) on Wednesday 11 September.
Computer based models are being used to assess the costs and benefits of integrating electric vehicles into the Cornish energy system.
A group from the Environment and Sustainability Institute has been recognised at the University of Exeter Impact Awards which took place at the Streatham Campus in Exeter last night.
Smart phone technology is revolutionising ecological and evolutionary research say scientists from the University of Exeter
The varied and valuable uses of smart phones and their apps deserve much wider scientific recognition and exploitation by environmental researchers concludes a review of research app development published this week.
A project led by two cultural geographers based at the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus, and inspired by the practices of repair and renewal in the South West, is documented in a new book.
University of Exeter Professor attends inaugural Congress of Brazilian, Chilean and Argentine Ecological Societies
The University of Exeter’s Professor Kevin J Gaston addressed delegates at the first ever joint Congress of the Brazilian, Chilean and Argentine Ecological Societies, which took place this month in Puerto Varas, Chile.
University researchers highlight environmental challenges and their social causes and solutions in World Social Science Report
The University of Exeter’s Professors Katrina Brown and Neil Adger, and Drs Saffron O'Neill and Helen Adams have contributed to the prestigious World Social Science Report published today, Friday 15 November 2013.
Scientists from the University of Exeter and the RSPB have captured incredible footage of what it’s like to fly with the UK’s largest seabird.
An exhibition of images made during full moon night walks in the summer by local residents is now on display at the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI).
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) website now features research profiles showcasing the diverse interdisciplinary work being led by its growing team of internationally recognised researchers.
The University of Exeter’s Professor Kevin J Gaston is taking up an invitation to join the board of the Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Local Nature Partnership (CIOSLNP), which launches today.
Fashion professionals gathered at the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) recently to take part in a specialist symposium - Applying Cornish Wisdom; Localising Sustainable Fashion and Textile Practice.
Researchers at the University of Exeter and the AHVLA’s National Wildlife Management Centre have shown that the social lives of badgers are related to their risk of infection with bovine tuberculosis (TB).
The Environment and Sustainability Institute, and partners, launch innovative Natural Capital Mapping Project
The Environment and Sustainability Institute, and partners, launch innovative Natural Capital Mapping Project (NCMP).
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) and Falmouth University have celebrated their new sustainable fashion collaboration with a ‘stylish’ event.
A shark tagging project run by the University of Exeter and Scottish Natural Heritage has been shortlisted for Best Conservation Project in the Countryfile Magazine awards.
Researchers from the University of Exeter are surveying Dartmoor to identity places that shelter wildlife from climate change.
Twenty-seven basking sharks have been tagged in the second year of a project to find out more about their life cycle.
Professor Kevin J Gaston, Director of the University of Exeter's Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI), has been awarded the prestigious Marsh Award for Ecology by the British Ecological Society.
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) is celebrating the launch of the Centre for Environmental Arts and Humanities (CEAH) on Wednesday 11 September.
The second year of a project to track basking sharks in Scottish waters is now underway.
Undergraduates from the University of Exeter Cornwall Campus have kindly donated part of their degree work to Falmouth Aquarium as an educational resource.
The journal Global Environmental Change, edited by Neil Adger in Geography and Katrina Brown in the Environment and Sustainability Institute, has retained its positions as the top ranked journal in Geography discipline for the third year.
Local people are invited to the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) on Thursday 18 July to join researchers and the BBSRC (the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council) in an interactive session to help determine the future of bioenergy policy in the UK.
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) has won Eco Building of the Year in the Michelmores/Western Morning News Property Awards.
In her new book, the Environment and Sustainability Institute's Dr Clare Saunders investigates the relationships between a broad range of environmental organisations.
A new method designed to measure the aesthetic value of ecosystems has been applied in Cornwall.
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) academic, researcher and professional staff profile web pages have been given a dramatic new look.
Butterflies are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature and new research has revealed that when summer weather turns bad the silver-spotted skipper battles for survival.
Local residents and people with an interest in their local environment are being asked to get involved with an exciting light pollution event in St Just this summer.
Students are working with the University’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) to explore how a Cornish business can become a ‘firm of the future’ – a business inspired by nature.
A team of Geographers working in collaboration with South West Water on a pioneering project has won CIWEM’s Living Wetlands Award.
Local artists are invited to the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) on Wednesday 26 June to take part in the second Creative Exchange Programme’s Melting Pot.
Efforts to improve street lights are providing a rare opportunity to cut both financial and environmental costs, argues Professor Kevin J Gaston in the current edition of the journal Nature.
A new project led jointly by the University of Exeter and the Stockholm Resilience Centre has been awarded £1.9 million by Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation.
The University of Exeter Cornwall Campus recently welcomed British campaigner, writer, sustainability advisor and leading environmentalist Tony Juniper.
Cornwall’s University Campus welcomes His Royal Highness The Earl of Wessex
The Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI), a £30 million environmental research institute at the University of Exeter’s Cornwall Campus was formally opened on Tuesday 23 April by more than 120 local school children.
The University of Exeter Cornwall Campus is to host a public lecture by British campaigner, writer, sustainability advisor and leading environmentalist Tony Juniper on Wednesday 1 May 2013.
In their most basic form, remote-controlled aircraft are the perfect gadget-lover’s toy, but now their high-tech cousins have the potential to revolutionise the way ecological data are collected.
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute is pleased to announce the appointment of inaugural Creative Exchange Affiliate, wildlife artist, Chris Thorn.
Local businesses are invited to a day of free talks and workshops showing them how to create and communicate their environmental messages successfully.
Scientists are to extend a popular basking shark tracking project for another year, it was announced today.
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) and Business School are seeking Cornish businesses to work with a small group of students this May.
University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) hosted the inaugural meeting of the Creative Exchange Programme’s Melting Pot on 30 January 2013.
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) and Renewable Energy department are looking for businesses to host student summer placements and projects.
January saw the selection of the University’s first public engagement champions by the Catalyst project.
The University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) has held a conference with outdoor activity businesses to explore and discuss the establishment of a voluntary code of conduct for outdoor activity providers in Cornwall, which could help minimise their impact on the environment.
Sleeping away from the family home is linked to health risks for badgers, new research by the University of Exeter and the Food and Environment Research Agency (Fera) has revealed.
Two prestigious awards have been presented to projects in which University of Exeter scientists are helping to develop groundbreaking methods to monitor the success of restoration of the South West’s upland peatlands.
New evidence from a four-year field study has shown that BCG vaccination reduces the risk of tuberculosis infection in unvaccinated badger cubs in vaccinated groups, as well as in badgers that received the vaccine.
Conservation policymakers and practitioners have met with researchers from the Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) to discuss the conservation potential of ‘microclimatic refugia’.
A new app which encourages people to say “good morning Mr Magpie” via their mobile phone will help scientists evaluate the benefits which birds bring to the quality of human life.
Scientists have conducted the first study into the ecological effects of a variety of energy-saving options to reduce overnight street lighting.
The impact of climate change on many aspects of cultural life for people all over the world is not being sufficiently accounted for by scientists and policy-makers.
Small is Beautiful? A public exhibition of photography celebrates the completion of a two-year research project.
Professor Robbie McDonald discusses controversial badger cull on BBC Radio 4 Material World
A new Research Network is established to explore the creation of a facility for environmental research and monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV).
The University of Exeter is engaging in a global research project to improve understanding of environmental liabilities and risks associated with mining operations.
The Environment and Sustainability Institute has teamed up with the RANE research group to launch a new Creative Exchange Programme.
University of Exeter scientists are part of a team investigating the movements of large sharks visiting Scottish waters.
The interdisciplinary journal Global Environmental Change, edited by Prof Neil Adger in Geography and Prof Katrina Brown in the Environment and Sustainability Institute, has been confirmed as the top journal in Geography with the release of the latest impact factors.
The energy generated from our oceans could be doubled using new methods for predicting wave power.
A University of Exeter team has developed new software tools for helping prioritise efforts in species conservation.
Students from the University of Exeter and Falmouth University have joined forces with the Tremough Campus Services Group (TCSG) to collaborate on the formation of a new Biodiversity Enhancement Plan for the Cornwall Campus.
Street lighting is transforming communities of insects and other invertebrates, according to research by the University of Exeter.
The University of Exeter and University College Falmouth will be showcasing creativity, originality and ground-breaking research in all sorts of ways for the local community and visitors to Falmouth to enjoy between 10am and 4pm on Saturday 19 May 2012.
Using the latest satellite tracking technology, conservationists from the Wildlife Conservation Society, the University of Exeter and the Government of Mexico have completed a ground-breaking study on a mysterious ocean giant: the manta ray.
The Leadbitter Group and the University of Exeter have celebrated reaching the highest point in the construction of the University’s £30 million Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) with a traditional topping out ceremony.
An unmanned aircraft has captured hundreds of images of Exmoor’s peatlands, revealing the condition of this rare environment as never seen before.
The University of Exeter is delighted to announce that it has accepted an invitation to join the Russell Group of leading research-led universities.
New discoveries from the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute will boost the region’s reputation for world-class research.
A trio of renowned professors will move to Cornwall following an international hunt for academics of the highest calibre to establish the region as a world-leading centre for environmental research.
Nearly 100 alumni and supporters gathered in London’s iconic Lloyd’s Building to hear Professor Kevin J. Gaston discuss ‘the power of ecosystems'.
Innovation is at the core of three major new projects, collectively worth over £50 million, and all designed to help businesses thrive in Cornwall, the Isles of Scilly and beyond.
More than 100 business representatives have met with the University of Exeter to discuss how together they can build an environmental knowledge economy for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly.
The University of Exeter has been rated as one of the top ten UK universities in The Times Good University Guide.
A ceremony has marked the official start of construction work on the building which will house the University of Exeter’s £30 million Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) at the Tremough Campus.
Professor Kevin J Gaston has been appointed inaugural Director of the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI).
A £30 million Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) is set to be built at the University of Exeter's Cornwall Campus.
Visitors to the University of Exeter’s annual Science in the Square event found out that while nature might sometimes seem scary, science can help make sense of terrifying phenomena as diverse as erupting volcanoes and intestinal parasites.
Cities should feature compact development alongside large, contiguous green spaces to maximise benefits of urban ecosystems to humans, research led by the University of Exeter has concluded.