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Exeter Centre for International Law

Welcome to the Exeter Centre for International Law

The Exeter Centre for International Law is home to a vibrant community of resident scholars, affiliated members and external visitors working in the field of international law. Our research interests and activities span a wide range of subjects and branches of law. We have particular expertise in the field of international human rights law, the law of armed conflict, international criminal law and international refugee law. We are an inclusive community and encourage students and fellow scholars at all levels to attend and participate in our events. Do get in touch!

Our mission

The Exeter Centre for International Law was established in 2014 to provide a focal point for the study of international law at the University of Exeter. The Centre builds on a long and distinguished tradition of international legal scholarship at Exeter Law School, stretching back to the 1960s. The purpose of the Centre is to provide an intellectual environment to

  • promote the study and development of international law;
  • stimulate debate and collaboration in response to the most pressing challenges facing the international legal order; and
  • support teaching and training in the field of international law.

Our work

‌Our work reflects the idea that international law is not merely an academic subject, but also an area of legal practice. Many of our members have first-hand experience in the application of international law. We maintain strong links with practitioners outside academia, from senior legal advisors to international judges, from government representatives to the staff of non-governmental organisations. We also benefit from close links with colleagues working in related disciplines, including members of Exeter University’s Strategy and Security Institute.

Members of the Centre conduct research at the forefront of international legal scholarship. We pride ourselves on our contribution to the wider legal and policy community. We publish leading pieces in peer-reviewed journals and contribute to key academic blogs. We participate in the work of international professional societies and regularly contribute to international events in the UK and abroad. We convene workshops on emerging topics and lead research projects addressing contemporary legal challenges.

Our research informs our teaching. Drawing on their specific expertise and interests, members of the Centre deliver a variety of courses in international law at the undergraduate and the postgraduate level, including in the field of conflict and security law, international criminal law and justice, counter-terrorism and international human rights law.


Dr Annika Jones presents new data on the demographics of victim participation at the International Criminal Court (ICC)

Dr Jones presented the outcomes of her AHRC IAA funded research into the demographics of victim participation at the ICC. The data provides new insights into the inclusivity of the ICC’s victim participation scheme and barriers that must be addressed to enhance the Court’s ability to represent, support and provide agency to the communities that are most deeply affected by international crime.

Professor Mačák joins discussion on the protection of civilian persons in time of war  

Between 30 April and 2 May 2024, Professor Kubo Mačák participated in a semi-annual meeting of the Editorial Committee for the International Committee of the Red Cross’s Updated Commentary on the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. The project is a multi-year endeavour led by the ICRC that aims to contribute to a better understanding of, and respect for, international humanitarian law.

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Exeter Law school professor speaks at IHL event in Geneva

On 25 April 2024, Professor Kubo Mačák spoke at an event for UN Member States, organized in Geneva by Switzerland and the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. Kubo presented his research on the international law aspects of the involvement of civilians in armed conflict through digital military technologies and its consequent impact on the protection of civilians.

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Honouring the legacy of Professor Yoram Dinstein: Kubo Mačák writes in the Lieber Institute’s blog Articles of War

The piece explores the legal justification for the separation between the jus in bello (international humanitarian law, IHL) and the jus ad bellum (law on the use of force), as well as some of its legal consequences.

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University of Exeter to lead groundbreaking international cyber law project

Professor Kubo Mačák will be leading a team to put together “The Handbook on Developing a National Position on International Law in Cyberspace: A Practical Guide for States”. The project will be formally launched on Tuesday 28 May 2024 at the 16th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon) in Tallinn, Estonia.

Read story.

Harriet Moynihan Speaks on Corporate Responsibility and Civic Freedoms at Exeter

On 30 November 2023, Exeter Law School hosted a talk by Harriet Moynihan (International Law Programme, Chatham House) titled “Upholding civic freedoms as part of geopolitical corporate responsibility”, part of the ongoing Axis of Protection Seminar Series.

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Estonian Expert Provides Insight into Cyber Diplomacy’s Future

Dr Anna-Maria Osula, an official of the Department of Cyber and Digital Diplomacy at the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, spoke at the University of Exeter on Thursday 16 November 2023.

Dr Osula’s talk, set against the backdrop of the escalating use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for malicious purposes, was centred around the past and present discussions at the United Nations Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG).

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Exeter Professor Speaks on Civilian Protection at US Military Academy

In early November 2023, Professor Kubo Mačák participated in the 2023 Lieber Workshop on Civilian Protection in Armed Conflict, organized by the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.

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Dr Aurel Sari's writings about Israel and Gaza

Dr Aurel Sari has commented on the ongoing situation in Israel and Gaza, discussing the applicable rules of the law of war with The Economist and The Times of Israel .

He has also published a post about the explosion at the Al-Ahli Hospital, explaining why we should not rush to premature conclusions without knowing the facts.

'Hackers in the Hague? The Prospects of Prosecuting International Cyber Crimes Before the ICC' 

In this new article the authors, Professor Kubo Mačák and Maxime Nijs, argue that despite recent signals of policy changes from the prosecutor, the likelihood of prosecuting cyber misconduct before the International Criminal Court in the near future remains uncertain due to the formidable challenges of gravity and attribution.

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Special edition of Science and Justice published

Prof. Caroline Fournet from the University of Exeter has co-edited with Dr Helen Tidy (School of Health & Life Sciences, Teesside University) a special issue of Science & Justice, entitled 'The Future of Teaching, Training and Learning in Forensic and Crime Sciences'. It was published online in November 2022.

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Reflection on the International conference 'The Sights, Sounds and Sensibilities of Atrocity Prosecutions'. 

The conference was co-organised by Prof. Caroline Fournet and Prof. Mark Drumbl (Washington & Lee University, USA) in Exeter on 20-21 October 2022. 

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Latest edition of influential Cyber Law Toolkit tracks online warfare around the globe

Experts behind an influential research project charting global cyber law are tracking major online attacks across the world.

The Cyber Law Toolkit, an established go-to resource for professionals and scholars working on international law and cyber operations, has been updated again for 2022.

Urgent need for the UK and its allies to clarify how they will respond militarily to imminent armed attacks, study says

There is an urgent need for the UK and allies to give clearer information about how they would respond in self-defence to ‘imminent’ armed attacks, a new study says.

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Cyber Law Toolkit Presents Annual Update Including an Overview of National Positions, Invites New Submissions

On 22 September 2021, Dr Kubo Mačák, the General Editor of the Cyber Law Toolkit, introduced its annual update at the CyberCon conference in Brno, Czech Republic.

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Professor Nasu appointed as a Senior Fellow at the US Naval War College

Exeter Law School’s Professor Hitoshi Nasu has recently been appointed as a Non-Resident Senior Fellow at the Stockton Centre for International Law at the United States Naval War College.

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Axis of Protection Seminar Series in Geneva

The first seminar of the Axis of Protection Seminar Series took place at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights in Geneva, Switzerland.

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Dr Beduschi presented research findings at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Dr Beduschi discussed how new technologies, including artificial intelligence, impact humanitarian action in the context of international migration.

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Cyber Law Toolkit Expands: ICRC and Wuhan University Join the Project Consortium

In October 2019, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Wuhan University, China, joined the Cyber Law Toolkit project led by Dr Kubo Mačák.

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Professor Schmitt recognized internationally

Exeter Law School’s Professor Mike Schmitt has recently received a number of prestigious appointments.

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Exeter legal academics discuss military space operations at expert meeting in The Hague

Between 5 and 9 August 2019, Professor Hitoshi Nasu and Dr Kubo Mačák attended the third meeting of the Woomera Manual on the International Law of Military Space Operations in The Hague, The Netherlands.

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Exeter Centre for International Law donates books to Zambian armed forces

In a fitting close to the academic year, the textbooks on the law of armed conflict were donated to the Defence and Command Staff College of the Defence Force of Zambia.

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Cyber law in time of war: Exeter academic presents at a cyber diplomacy event in Tallinn

On 24 July 2019, Dr Kubo Mačák spoke at the Tallinn Summer School of Cyber Diplomacy on the topic “Cyber Operations and International Humanitarian Law”.

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Exeter academics participate in military operations course at West Point

Three members of the Exeter Centre for International Law travelled to West Point in June 2019 to attend the second US Military Operations Course at the United States Military Academy.

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New toolkit to provide guidance on international cyber law

International lawyers and cyber experts have worked together to give new guidance on how countries may respond to malicious cyber operations such as computer hacking aimed at interfering with foreign elections.

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Global Cyber Law Capacity Building Effort Supported by Exeter Law School

Mike Schmitt, Professor of Public International Law, has been busy training government officials around the world on international cyber law.

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Launch of report on hybrid threats

On 11 April, Dr Aurel Sari contributed to the launch of a report on hybrid threats at NATO Headquarters in Brussels.

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Exeter hosts conference on legal resilience and hybrid threats

In April 2019, the Exeter Centre for International Law hosted a conference on “Legal Resilience in an Era of Hybrid Threats”.

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Exeter academic to undertake a visiting fellowship at Leiden University

Dr Kubo Mačák will spend a month exploring the role of non-state led initiatives in the development of international cyber law at Leiden University’s Hague Program for Cyber Norms

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Professor Mike Schmitt has been named a Visiting Professor at the University of Texas Law School

The University is renowned for its work in the field of national security.

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Delegation from Okinawa visits Exeter to discuss status of US military forces

On 10 January 2019, the Exeter Centre for International Law hosted a delegation from the Okinawa Prefectural Government. 

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Exeter Professor Trains Government Officials Globally on Cyber Law

Professor Mike Schmitt has completed a six-week journey training government officials on how international law governs hostile cyber operations.

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Professor Michael Schmitt named the Howard S. Levie Professor of Law and Armed Conflict at the War College

Professor Michael Schmitt, who holds a dual-appointment at the University of Exeter Law School and the United States Naval War College, has been named the Howard S. Levie Professor of Law and Armed Conflict at the War College. 

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Global project on the law of military space operations launched at Exeter

The first meeting of the Woomera Manual on the International Law of Military Space Operations was held at Exeter Law School between 5 and 9 August 2018.

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Exeter Law School Professor Appointed to Prestigious US Advisory Body

Professor Michael Schmitt has been reappointed to another two-year term on the US Department of State’s Advisory Committee on International Law.  

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Exeter Academic Speaks at the Internet Security Conference in Beijing

On Tuesday 4 September 2018, Dr Kubo Mačák gave a talk entitled “Future of Cyberspace Governance: The Role of International Law” at one of the world’s largest cyber security conferences.

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Professor Schmitt honored for Research Excellence; Continues Cyber Capacity Building Effort

Professor Michael Schmitt was recently honored by the War College as its outstanding research scholar for academic year 2017-2018. 

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Dr Agnieszka Jachec-Neale presents on the legal challenges of military targeting

Earlier this year, Dr Agnieszka Jachec-Neale gave a series of presentations in The Hague on the challenges posed to the concept of lawful targets in armed conflict by the complexities of the modern battlefield.

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Exeter academics speak at a conference on hybrid warfare

On 24–25 May 2018, Palacký University in Olomouc, Czechia, hosted an international conference on the theme “Responding to Hybrid Threats by Force: International and National Law Aspects”. Two Exeter academics contributed to the event.

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The role of law in countering hybrid threats

Exeter academic brings legal expertise to European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats.

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Dutch Government Marks First Anniversary of Exeter Law Professor's Manual

Dutch Government holds birthday party for Exeter Professor's project.

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Exeter Cyber Law Experts in the Spotlight in Estonia

Exeter Law School is cementing its position as a global thought leader in international cyber law. Between 21 May and 1 June 2018, two members of the faculty travelled to Tallinn, Estonia, to take part in an annual gathering of global cyber experts in the fields of technology, strategy, policy, and law.

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Leading Chinese professor visits Exeter Law School

Professor Zhixiong Huang, the Luojia Chair of International Law at Wuhan University in China, visited the Law School in May 2018 to discuss academic collaboration between Exeter and Wuhan.

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The future of international law in 2050

Report published by the Exeter Centre for International Law on the future of the international legal system.

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Cyber Law in the Americas

The influence of the "Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law of Cyber Operations" continues to spread globally.

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Exeter Professor Influencing Cyber Policy

Professor Mike Schmitt of the Law School hit the road to discuss cyber law policy with key decision makers and the private sector.

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Conflict in outer space will happen: legal experts

Space and military law experts from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States have joined forces to take the lead on understanding how our Earth-bound laws will be applied in times of armed conflict in outer space.

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Exeter PhD Student becomes International Law Adviser for the British Red Cross

Noel Trew, a doctoral student at the Strategy and Security Institute and Exeter Law School, has recently joined the International Law Department at the British Red Cross’s head office in London. Noel’s research was supervised jointly by Dr Aurel Sari from the Law School and Dr Catarina Thomson from the Politics Department.

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Exeter academics undertook research fellowships at the Max Planck Institute in Heidelberg

Dr Ana Beduschi and Dr Kubo Mačák spent four months as visiting researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law.

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Exeter Law School's Professor Schmitt on Israel Tour

Exeter Law Professor on speaking tour in Jerusalem and Washington

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PhD studentships in international law

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Estonia awards medal to Exeter professor

A University of Exeter professor has received a medal from the President of Estonia for his work on cyber security.

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Dr Beduschi spoke at the American Society of International Law Midyear Research Forum in St Louis, USA on 28 October 2017

Dr Ana Beduschi presented her research on the implications of new technologies based on big data analysis for State obligations under international human rights law in the context of international migration.

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Law as an asymmetric capability: Dr Aurel Sari presents on the legal aspects of hybrid threats

European and allied nations must increase their capacity to deal with the legal challenges presented by hybrid warfare. (2 October 2017)

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Exeter Centre for International Law co-hosts international conference in Bruges

On 20-22 September 2017, the Exeter Centre for International Law supported the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, together with the University of Melbourne, in hosting a conference in the beautiful city of Bruges in Belgium.

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Exeter Law School: Thought Leaders in Cyber Law

Exeter Law School’s Professor Michael Schmitt and Dr. Kubo Mačák were figured prominently at a series of events on cyber security held in Tallinn, Estonia, over the past two weeks. 

(6 June 2017)

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Rules for space warfare to be drawn up

An international coalition of lawyers is to draft the first ever legal manual of space warfare.

(22 May 2017)

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From Santiago to Singapore: Professor Schmitt talks Cyber Operations

Professor Schmitt co-directed a course on the international law of cyber operations for government officials from Central and South America in Santiago, Chile.

(23 May 2017)

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Dr Jachec-Neale presents at the Second Israel Defence Forces Conference on the Law of Armed Conflict

Dr Agnieszka Jachec-Neale is presenting her research on the targeting of State and political party leaders and infrastructure related to leadership during armed conflict at the second International Israel Defence Forces Conference on the Law of Armed Conflict.

(27 April 2017)

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First comprehensive legal guide for cyber behaviour published by University of Exeter expert

The first comprehensive guide covering the legal rules of behaviour in cyberspace, which will be used by governments around the world, has been published by a University of Exeter academic.

(15 February 2017)

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Professor Schmitt honoured by the Estonian Government

A University of Exeter expert has been honoured by the Estonian Government for his pioneering work in international law.

(10 February 2017)

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Exeter Law Professor Addresses NATO Secretary-General and North Atlantic Council on Cyber Law

On 19 January, Professor Mike Schmitt spoke on international law of cyber operation to NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg, Deputy Secretary-General Rose Gottemoeller, and the North Atlantic Council (NAC).

(25 January 2017)

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Dr Sari participates in Exercise Trident Juncture 16

Dr Aurel Sari reports on his participation in a command post exercise with the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps.

(8 November 2016)

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Professor Schmitt's research and speaking tour

Professor Schmitt has been on a research and speaking tour for the last two months. He is now concluding his travels with a two week stay at the CCD COE in Estonia, completing the work on the Tallinn Manual.

(8 November 2016)

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'Global Conversation' takes key issue of cyberwarfare to Washington DC

The latest research on cybersecurity, an issue high on the agenda for both sides in the current US Presidential election campaign, will be shared by a leading expert from the University of Exeter at a special event in Washington DC, USA.

(17 October 2016)

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Expert roundtable on international humanitarian law to be hosted at Exeter Law School on 22-23 September 2016

Exeter Law School will host an expert roundtable in collaboration with the University of Reading to explore the impact of the law of armed conflict on general international law.

(14 September 2016)

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World-leading international law expert takes up post at Exeter Law School

We are delighted to announce that Professor Michael N. Schmitt has joined the School on a full-time basis.

(23 August 2016)

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Professor Schmitt speaks at the annual Fugh Symposium

The symposium brings together the most senior military attorneys from around the world to consider issues at the cutting-edge of law and conflict and to share their concerns and perspectives.

(17 August 2016)

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Professor Schmitt attended the Transatlantic International Law and Armed Conflict Workshop at Oxford University

The workshops bring together a small, select group of senior scholars and practitioners from North America and Europe to exchange views on challenging topics in the field of international humanitarian law.

(17 August 2016)

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Experts from around the world gather to discuss challenges of warfare

Representatives from the armed forces of several nations, NATO and the International Committee of the Red Cross joined Exeter academics to debate some of the most pressing legal challenges facing military operations.

(24 June 2016)

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Professor Mike Schmitt and Dr Kubo Mačák speak on cyber security in Estonia

On 1 June 2016, two Exeter academics participated in a high-level expert panel on international law and cyber security at the 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon) in Tallinn, Estonia. 

(10 June 2016)

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Professor Mike Schmitt speaks on progress of Tallinn Manual 2.0 Project

Professor Schmitt, Professor of Public International Law at Exeter Law School, presented a public lecture at the T.M.C. Asser Institute  in the Hague on 3 February.

(26 February 2016)

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Targeting: The Challenges of Modern Warfare

Targeting: The Challenges of Modern Warfare.

(5 January 2016)

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Dr Sari hosts workshop on the legal implications of ‘hybrid warfare’

The event, convened in collaboration with the NATO Office of Legal Affairs and the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, brought together senior legal advisors and experts from across the UK and NATO for a two-day seminar, held in Exeter.

(1 October 2015)

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Our members and research interests


NameResearch interests

Ana Beduschi

Human Rights Law,  European Court of Human Rights, Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Migration, Migrant Children, Refugee Law, Immigration Law, Common Migration Poliy, Common European Asylum System, Big Data, AI, Artificial Intelligence, Technology, Digital Identity, Privacy, Data Protection.

Justine Bendel

Global environmental law; international dispute settlement; environment and development nexus; protection of forests; methodologies in international law

Faye Bird

Public international law; the law of armed conflict; feminist theory; feminist methodologies; the UN Security Council; women, peace and security.

Christine Bicknell

International and European human rights law

Caroline Fournet

International Criminal Law and Procedure; Human Rights Law; European Convention on Human Rights; Right to a Fair Trial; Post-conflict Investigations; Investigations of International Crimes and of Gross Human Rights Violations; Forensic Evidence.

Clair Gammage

International trade law; sustainable development; gender; human rights; labour law; environmental law.

Rachel Gimson

International criminal law

Anne Herbert

Public international law; human rights law; international legal theory; international legal history; international institutions.

Ben Hudson

International law, International human rights law, Internal displacement, Refugee law, The European Convention and Court of Human Rights, Vulnerability, Access to higher education, Academic leadership

Agnieszka Jachec-Neale

Public international law; armed conflict; international criminal law; post-conflict environments

Annika Jones

Factors shaping the making and development of international law; Judicial dialogue and interaction between courts; International criminal law and procedure; International human rights, particularly in the context of international criminal trials; Public international law

Kubo Mačák

General international law; international humanitarian law; human rights law

Mark Mackarel

International criminal law; European Court of Human Rights

Chris O'Meara

General International Law; use of force; self-defence; humanitarian intervention; international humanitarian law

Marta Minetti

Criminalization of migration in Italy and Europe; externalization of border controls; expansion of jurisdiction; Transnational Organized Crime framework on human trafficking and migrant smuggling; impact of populism on the Rule of Law.

Aurel Sari

Public international law; the law of armed conflict; operational law; status of forces agreements; use of force; peacekeeping; collective security; NATO; hybrid warfare

Inga Thiemann

Public international law; human rights law; feminist legal theory; labour/employment law

Emine Dogan Mia

Phd Student

Moses M'Mutungi

Phd Student

Mustafa Tuncer 

Phd Student

Khurram Usman

Phd Student

Mohammed Al Muqaimi

Phd Student

Jade Brailsford

Phd Student

Nicholas Fryer

Phd Student

Chris Gardiner

Phd Student



Our most recent event was held in April:

"The Demographics of Victim Participation at the International Criminal Court"

With Dr Annika Jones

Full details of the event are on our events page here.

Watch this previous event:

Axis of Protection: Human Rights in International Law Seminar Series event

2 November 2022

This event was a collaboration between the Science, Culture and Law at Exeter (SCuLE) and the Exeter Centre for International Law (ECIL) research centres.

"Data protection and cybersecurity: the not-so-impossible task of reconciliation" by Professor Eleni Kosta, Professor of Technology Law and Human Rights, Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT), Tilburg University.


There are no current events to display, but please come back soon for updates.

ECIL Working Paper Series

General Editor: Dr Aurel Sari

Editor-in-Chief: Dr Kubo Mačák

The Working Paper Series was established by the Exeter Centre for International Law (ECIL) in 2017/18 in order to promote research outputs in the area of international law authored by members of the academic community at Exeter Law School. Enquiries about the series and requests for submission guidelines should be addressed to the editor-in-chief.

Papers published thus far are available at the links below.   

Christine Bicknell International Law in Human Rights Cases before the UK Courts. ECIL Working Paper 2024/1
Kubo Mačák The Role of International Human Rights Law in the Interpretation of the Fourth Geneva Convention. ECIL Working Paper 2022/2 (forthcoming Isr. Y. B. Hum. Rts.)
Chris O’Meara Reconceptualising the right of self-defence against ‘imminent’ armed attacks. ECIL Working Paper 2022/1 (forthcoming J. Use of Force & Int’l L.)
Aurel Sari and Hitoshi Nasu NATO and Collective Defense in Space: Same Mission, New Domain. ECIL Working Paper 2021/2 (forthcoming Turkish Pol. Q.)‌
Ana Beduschi Covid-19 health status certificates: Key considerations for data privacy and human rights. ECIL Working Paper 2021/1
Swati Gola Right to Health in GATS: Can the Public Health Exception Pave the Way for Complementarity? ECIL Working Paper 2020/4 (forthcoming Pace Int’l L. Rev.)
Hitoshi Nasu The Laws of Neutrality in the Interconnected World: Mapping the Future ScenariosECIL Working Paper 2020/3 (forthcoming in Matthew Waxman and Thomas Oakley (eds) The Future Law of Armed Conflict (OUP 2021))
Kubo Mačák  Military Space Operations. ECIL Working Paper 2020/2 (forthcoming in Sergey Sayapin (ed.), An Introduction to International Conflict and Security Law (T.M.C. Asser Press 2020))
Mihail Danov Cross-Border Litigation: Evaluating the Brexit Impact – A Socio-Legal Model for Data Analysis. ECIL Working Paper 2020/1 (forthcoming Maast. J. Eur. & Comp. L.)
Hitoshi Nasu

Artificial Intelligence and the Obligation to Respect and to Ensure Respect for International Humanitarian Law. ECIL Working Paper 2019/3 (forthcoming E Massingham and A McConnachie (eds) Ensuring Respect for International Humanitarian Law [Working Title] (Routledge 2020))

Kubo Mačák

This is Cyber: 1 + 3 Challenges for the Application of International Humanitarian Law in Cyberspace. ECIL Working Paper 2019/2

Aurel Sari Legal Resilience in an Era of Gray Zone Conflicts and Hybrid Threats‌. ECIL Working Paper 2019/1 (forthcoming Camb. Rev. Int. Aff.)  
Sephora Sultana & Hitoshi Nasu Invisible Soldiers: The Perfidy Implications of Invisibility Technology in Battlefields of the FutureECIL Working Paper 2018/7 (published in ET Jensen and RTP Alcala (eds), The Impact of Emerging Technologies on the Law of Armed Conflict (OUP 2019))
Kubo Mačák & Michael N. Schmitt  “Enemy Controlled Battlespace”: The Contemporary Meaning and Purpose of Additional Protocol I’s Article 44(3) Exception. ECIL Working Paper 2018/6 (forthcoming Vand. J. Transnat’l L.)
Ana Beduschi The Big Data of International Migration: Opportunities and Challenges for States Under International Human Rights Law. ECIL Working Paper 2018/5 (forthcoming Geo. J. Int’l L.)
Jennifer Maddocks Outsourcing of Governmental Functions in Contemporary Conflict: Rethinking the Issue of Attribution. ECIL Working Paper 2018/4 (forthcoming Va. J. Int’l L.) 
Michael N. Schmitt

“Virtual” Disenfranchisement: Cyber Election Meddling in the Grey Zones of International Law. ECIL Working Paper 2018/3 (forthcoming Chi. J. Int'l L.) 

Harry Aitken & Hitoshi Nasu Human Degradation Technologies and International Law. ECIL Working Paper 2018/2 (forthcoming W Boothby (ed) New Technologies and the Law in War and Peace (CUP 2018))
Kubo Mačák
Silent War: Applicability of the Jus in Bello to Military Space OperationsECIL Working Paper 2018/1 (forthcoming Int'l L. Stud.) 
Mihail Danov ‌Cross-Border Litigation in England and Wales‌: Pre-Brexit Data and Post-Brexit Implications. ECIL Working Paper 2017/3 (forthcoming Maast. J. Eur. & Comp. L.)
Ana Beduschi Vulnerability on Trial: Protection of Migrant Children’s Rights in the Jurisprudence of International Human Rights Courts. ECIL Working Paper 2017/2 (forthcoming B.U. Int’l L. J.)
Aurel Sari

Hybrid Law, Complex Battlespaces: What’s the Use of a Law of War Manual? ECIL Working Paper 2017/1

Contact us


For non-media enquiries about the Exeter Centre for International Law and its activities, please contact us in one of the following ways.



Professor Caroline Fournet (Director)


Exeter Centre for International Law
Law School
Amory Building
University of Exeter
Rennes Drive


For media enquires, please contact the Press Office at or +44 (0)1392 722307.