Exeter Centre for International Law
Welcome to the Exeter Centre for International Law
The Exeter Centre for International Law is home to a vibrant community of resident scholars, affiliated members and external visitors working in the field of international law. Our research interests and activities span a wide range of subjects and branches of law. We have particular expertise in the field of international human rights law, the law of armed conflict, international criminal law and international refugee law. We are an inclusive community and encourage students and fellow scholars at all levels to attend and participate in our events. Do get in touch!
The Exeter Centre for International Law was established in 2014 to provide a focal point for the study of international law at the University of Exeter. The Centre builds on a long and distinguished tradition of international legal scholarship at Exeter Law School, stretching back to the 1960s. The purpose of the Centre is to provide an intellectual environment to
- promote the study and development of international law;
- stimulate debate and collaboration in response to the most pressing challenges facing the international legal order; and
- support teaching and training in the field of international law.
Our work reflects the idea that international law is not merely an academic subject, but also an area of legal practice. Many of our members have first-hand experience in the application of international law. We maintain strong links with practitioners outside academia, from senior legal advisors to international judges, from government representatives to the staff of non-governmental organisations. We also benefit from close links with colleagues working in related disciplines, including members of Exeter University’s Strategy and Security Institute.
Members of the Centre conduct research at the forefront of international legal scholarship. We pride ourselves on our contribution to the wider legal and policy community. We publish leading pieces in peer-reviewed journals and contribute to key academic blogs. We participate in the work of international professional societies and regularly contribute to international events in the UK and abroad. We convene workshops on emerging topics and lead research projects addressing contemporary legal challenges.
Our research informs our teaching. Drawing on their specific expertise and interests, members of the Centre deliver a variety of courses in international law at the undergraduate and the postgraduate level, including in the field of conflict and security law, international criminal law and justice, counter-terrorism and international human rights law.
Harriet Moynihan Speaks on Corporate Responsibility and Civic Freedoms at Exeter
On 30 November 2023, Exeter Law School hosted a talk by Harriet Moynihan (International Law Programme, Chatham House) titled “Upholding civic freedoms as part of geopolitical corporate responsibility”, part of the ongoing Axis of Protection Seminar Series.
Estonian Expert Provides Insight into Cyber Diplomacy’s Future
Dr Anna-Maria Osula, an official of the Department of Cyber and Digital Diplomacy at the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, spoke at the University of Exeter on Thursday 16 November 2023.
Dr Osula’s talk, set against the backdrop of the escalating use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for malicious purposes, was centred around the past and present discussions at the United Nations Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG).
Exeter Professor Speaks on Civilian Protection at US Military Academy
In early November 2023, Professor Kubo Mačák participated in the 2023 Lieber Workshop on Civilian Protection in Armed Conflict, organized by the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.
Dr Aurel Sari's writings about Israel and Gaza
He has also published a post about the explosion at the Al-Ahli Hospital, explaining why we should not rush to premature conclusions without knowing the facts.
In this new article the authors, Professor Kubo Mačák and Maxime Nijs, argue that despite recent signals of policy changes from the prosecutor, the likelihood of prosecuting cyber misconduct before the International Criminal Court in the near future remains uncertain due to the formidable challenges of gravity and attribution.
Prof. Caroline Fournet from the University of Exeter has co-edited with Dr Helen Tidy (School of Health & Life Sciences, Teesside University) a special issue of Science & Justice, entitled 'The Future of Teaching, Training and Learning in Forensic and Crime Sciences'. It was published online in November 2022.
Reflection on the International conference 'The Sights, Sounds and Sensibilities of Atrocity Prosecutions'.
The conference was co-organised by Prof. Caroline Fournet and Prof. Mark Drumbl (Washington & Lee University, USA) in Exeter on 20-21 October 2022.
Experts behind an influential research project charting global cyber law are tracking major online attacks across the world.
The Cyber Law Toolkit, an established go-to resource for professionals and scholars working on international law and cyber operations, has been updated again for 2022.
Urgent need for the UK and its allies to clarify how they will respond militarily to imminent armed attacks, study says
There is an urgent need for the UK and allies to give clearer information about how they would respond in self-defence to ‘imminent’ armed attacks, a new study says.
Cyber Law Toolkit Presents Annual Update Including an Overview of National Positions, Invites New Submissions
On 22 September 2021, Dr Kubo Mačák, the General Editor of the Cyber Law Toolkit, introduced its annual update at the CyberCon conference in Brno, Czech Republic.
Exeter Law School’s Professor Hitoshi Nasu has recently been appointed as a Non-Resident Senior Fellow at the Stockton Centre for International Law at the United States Naval War College.
The first seminar of the Axis of Protection Seminar Series took place at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights in Geneva, Switzerland.
Dr Beduschi presented research findings at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights
Dr Beduschi discussed how new technologies, including artificial intelligence, impact humanitarian action in the context of international migration.
In October 2019, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Wuhan University, China, joined the Cyber Law Toolkit project led by Dr Kubo Mačák.
Exeter Law School’s Professor Mike Schmitt has recently received a number of prestigious appointments.
Between 5 and 9 August 2019, Professor Hitoshi Nasu and Dr Kubo Mačák attended the third meeting of the Woomera Manual on the International Law of Military Space Operations in The Hague, The Netherlands.
In a fitting close to the academic year, the textbooks on the law of armed conflict were donated to the Defence and Command Staff College of the Defence Force of Zambia.
On 24 July 2019, Dr Kubo Mačák spoke at the Tallinn Summer School of Cyber Diplomacy on the topic “Cyber Operations and International Humanitarian Law”.
Three members of the Exeter Centre for International Law travelled to West Point in June 2019 to attend the second US Military Operations Course at the United States Military Academy.
International lawyers and cyber experts have worked together to give new guidance on how countries may respond to malicious cyber operations such as computer hacking aimed at interfering with foreign elections.
Mike Schmitt, Professor of Public International Law, has been busy training government officials around the world on international cyber law.
On 11 April, Dr Aurel Sari contributed to the launch of a report on hybrid threats at NATO Headquarters in Brussels.
In April 2019, the Exeter Centre for International Law hosted a conference on “Legal Resilience in an Era of Hybrid Threats”.
The University is renowned for its work in the field of national security.
On 10 January 2019, the Exeter Centre for International Law hosted a delegation from the Okinawa Prefectural Government.
Professor Mike Schmitt has completed a six-week journey training government officials on how international law governs hostile cyber operations.
Professor Michael Schmitt named the Howard S. Levie Professor of Law and Armed Conflict at the War College
Professor Michael Schmitt, who holds a dual-appointment at the University of Exeter Law School and the United States Naval War College, has been named the Howard S. Levie Professor of Law and Armed Conflict at the War College.
The first meeting of the Woomera Manual on the International Law of Military Space Operations was held at Exeter Law School between 5 and 9 August 2018.
Professor Michael Schmitt has been reappointed to another two-year term on the US Department of State’s Advisory Committee on International Law.
On Tuesday 4 September 2018, Dr Kubo Mačák gave a talk entitled “Future of Cyberspace Governance: The Role of International Law” at one of the world’s largest cyber security conferences.
Professor Michael Schmitt was recently honored by the War College as its outstanding research scholar for academic year 2017-2018.
Earlier this year, Dr Agnieszka Jachec-Neale gave a series of presentations in The Hague on the challenges posed to the concept of lawful targets in armed conflict by the complexities of the modern battlefield.
On 24–25 May 2018, Palacký University in Olomouc, Czechia, hosted an international conference on the theme “Responding to Hybrid Threats by Force: International and National Law Aspects”. Two Exeter academics contributed to the event.
Exeter academic brings legal expertise to European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats.
Dutch Government holds birthday party for Exeter Professor's project.
Exeter Law School is cementing its position as a global thought leader in international cyber law. Between 21 May and 1 June 2018, two members of the faculty travelled to Tallinn, Estonia, to take part in an annual gathering of global cyber experts in the fields of technology, strategy, policy, and law.
Professor Zhixiong Huang, the Luojia Chair of International Law at Wuhan University in China, visited the Law School in May 2018 to discuss academic collaboration between Exeter and Wuhan.
Report published by the Exeter Centre for International Law on the future of the international legal system.
The influence of the "Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law of Cyber Operations" continues to spread globally.
Professor Mike Schmitt of the Law School hit the road to discuss cyber law policy with key decision makers and the private sector.
Space and military law experts from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States have joined forces to take the lead on understanding how our Earth-bound laws will be applied in times of armed conflict in outer space.
Noel Trew, a doctoral student at the Strategy and Security Institute and Exeter Law School, has recently joined the International Law Department at the British Red Cross’s head office in London. Noel’s research was supervised jointly by Dr Aurel Sari from the Law School and Dr Catarina Thomson from the Politics Department.
Dr Ana Beduschi and Dr Kubo Mačák spent four months as visiting researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law.
Exeter Law Professor on speaking tour in Jerusalem and Washington
A University of Exeter professor has received a medal from the President of Estonia for his work on cyber security.
Dr Beduschi spoke at the American Society of International Law Midyear Research Forum in St Louis, USA on 28 October 2017
Dr Ana Beduschi presented her research on the implications of new technologies based on big data analysis for State obligations under international human rights law in the context of international migration.
European and allied nations must increase their capacity to deal with the legal challenges presented by hybrid warfare. (2 October 2017)
On 20-22 September 2017, the Exeter Centre for International Law supported the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, together with the University of Melbourne, in hosting a conference in the beautiful city of Bruges in Belgium.
Exeter Law School’s Professor Michael Schmitt and Dr. Kubo Mačák were figured prominently at a series of events on cyber security held in Tallinn, Estonia, over the past two weeks. (6 June 2017)
An international coalition of lawyers is to draft the first ever legal manual of space warfare.(22 May 2017)
Professor Schmitt co-directed a course on the international law of cyber operations for government officials from Central and South America in Santiago, Chile.(23 May 2017)
Dr Jachec-Neale presents at the Second Israel Defence Forces Conference on the Law of Armed Conflict
Dr Agnieszka Jachec-Neale is presenting her research on the targeting of State and political party leaders and infrastructure related to leadership during armed conflict at the second International Israel Defence Forces Conference on the Law of Armed Conflict.(27 April 2017)
The first comprehensive guide covering the legal rules of behaviour in cyberspace, which will be used by governments around the world, has been published by a University of Exeter academic.(15 February 2017)
A University of Exeter expert has been honoured by the Estonian Government for his pioneering work in international law.(10 February 2017)
On 19 January, Professor Mike Schmitt spoke on international law of cyber operation to NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg, Deputy Secretary-General Rose Gottemoeller, and the North Atlantic Council (NAC).(25 January 2017)
Dr Aurel Sari reports on his participation in a command post exercise with the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps.(8 November 2016)
Professor Schmitt has been on a research and speaking tour for the last two months. He is now concluding his travels with a two week stay at the CCD COE in Estonia, completing the work on the Tallinn Manual.(8 November 2016)
The latest research on cybersecurity, an issue high on the agenda for both sides in the current US Presidential election campaign, will be shared by a leading expert from the University of Exeter at a special event in Washington DC, USA.(17 October 2016)
Expert roundtable on international humanitarian law to be hosted at Exeter Law School on 22-23 September 2016
Exeter Law School will host an expert roundtable in collaboration with the University of Reading to explore the impact of the law of armed conflict on general international law.(14 September 2016)
We are delighted to announce that Professor Michael N. Schmitt has joined the School on a full-time basis.(23 August 2016)
The symposium brings together the most senior military attorneys from around the world to consider issues at the cutting-edge of law and conflict and to share their concerns and perspectives.(17 August 2016)
Professor Schmitt attended the Transatlantic International Law and Armed Conflict Workshop at Oxford University
The workshops bring together a small, select group of senior scholars and practitioners from North America and Europe to exchange views on challenging topics in the field of international humanitarian law.(17 August 2016)
Representatives from the armed forces of several nations, NATO and the International Committee of the Red Cross joined Exeter academics to debate some of the most pressing legal challenges facing military operations.(24 June 2016)
On 1 June 2016, two Exeter academics participated in a high-level expert panel on international law and cyber security at the 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon) in Tallinn, Estonia. (10 June 2016)
Professor Schmitt, Professor of Public International Law at Exeter Law School, presented a public lecture at the T.M.C. Asser Institute in the Hague on 3 February.(26 February 2016)
Targeting: The Challenges of Modern Warfare. (5 January 2016)
The event, convened in collaboration with the NATO Office of Legal Affairs and the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, brought together senior legal advisors and experts from across the UK and NATO for a two-day seminar, held in Exeter.(1 October 2015)
Our members and research interests
Human Rights Law, European Court of Human Rights, Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Migration, Migrant Children, Refugee Law, Immigration Law, Common Migration Poliy, Common European Asylum System, Big Data, AI, Artificial Intelligence, Technology, Digital Identity, Privacy, Data Protection.
Global environmental law; international dispute settlement; environment and development nexus; protection of forests; methodologies in international law
Public international law; the law of armed conflict; feminist theory; feminist methodologies; the UN Security Council; women, peace and security.
International and European human rights law
International Criminal Law and Procedure; Human Rights Law; European Convention on Human Rights; Right to a Fair Trial; Post-conflict Investigations; Investigations of International Crimes and of Gross Human Rights Violations; Forensic Evidence.
International trade law; sustainable development; gender; human rights; labour law; environmental law.
|International criminal law
|Public international law; human rights law; international legal theory; international legal history; international institutions.
|International law, International human rights law, Internal displacement, Refugee law, The European Convention and Court of Human Rights, Vulnerability, Access to higher education, Academic leadership
Public international law; armed conflict; international criminal law; post-conflict environments
Factors shaping the making and development of international law; Judicial dialogue and interaction between courts; International criminal law and procedure; International human rights, particularly in the context of international criminal trials; Public international law
General international law; international humanitarian law; human rights law
|International criminal law; European Court of Human Rights
General International Law; use of force; self-defence; humanitarian intervention; international humanitarian law
Criminalization of migration in Italy and Europe; externalization of border controls; expansion of jurisdiction; Transnational Organized Crime framework on human trafficking and migrant smuggling; impact of populism on the Rule of Law.
Public international law; the law of armed conflict; operational law; status of forces agreements; use of force; peacekeeping; collective security; NATO; hybrid warfare
Public international law; human rights law; feminist legal theory; labour/employment law
Mohammed Al Muqaimi
COVID-19: Human Rights Implications of Digital Certificates for Health Status Verification
Ana BeduschiUKRI ESRC | 2020 - 2021
Co-creation for the UN Global Study on children deprived of liberty
Huw WilliamsESRC IAA | 2018 - 2019
International Cyber Law in Practice: Interactive Toolkit for Legal Advisors and Decision-Makers
Kubo MačákESRC IAA Project Co-Creation Fund | 2018 - 2019
Building Digital Identities: A Scoping Study
Ana BeduschiESRC IAA SOCIAL POLICY NETWORK | 2016 - 2017
Protection of Migrant Children’s Rights: Training and Toolkit for Charity Workers in Greece and in the UK
Ana BeduschiESRC IAA Project Co-Creation Fund | 2016 - 2017
The Impact of the Law of Armed Conflict on General International Law
Kubo MačákCollege of Social Sciences and International Studies | 2016 - 2017
Creating a legal and regulatory framework for interconnections between stock exchanges: A comparative study of the UK and Taiwan
Joseph LeeBritish Academy | 2016 - 2016
Protection of Migrant Children’s Rights in Greece, France and in the UK: Challenges and Responses
Ana BeduschiESRC IAA Social Policy Network | 2015 - 2016
Clearing the Fog of Law: The Impact of International Human Rights Law on the British Armed Forces
Aurel SariBritish Academy | 2014 - 2016
United Nations Working Group on Business and Human Rights: Identifying Challenges, good practice and guidance for National Action Plans to implement the UN Guiding Principles in Business and Human Rights
Michael AddoMinistry of Foreign Affairs, Multinational Organisations and Human Rights Department, The Netherlands | 2014 - 2015
Axis of Protection: Human Rights in International Law Seminar Series event
2 November 2022
"Data protection and cybersecurity: the not-so-impossible task of reconciliation" by Professor Eleni Kosta, Professor of Technology Law and Human Rights, Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT), Tilburg University.
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ECIL Working Paper Series
General Editor: Dr Aurel Sari
Editor-in-Chief: Dr Kubo Mačák
The Working Paper Series was established by the Exeter Centre for International Law (ECIL) in 2017/18 in order to promote research outputs in the area of international law authored by members of the academic community at Exeter Law School. Enquiries about the series and requests for submission guidelines should be addressed to the editor-in-chief.
Papers published thus far are available at the links below.
For non-media enquiries about the Exeter Centre for International Law and its activities, please contact us in one of the following ways.
Exeter Centre for International Law
For media enquires, please contact the Press Office at email@example.com or +44 (0)1392 722307.