EPSRC CDT in Metamaterials (PhD studentship): Two-dimensional Metamaterial Batteries Ref: 2847

About the award

The studentship is part of the UK’s Centre of Doctoral Training in Metamaterials (XM2) based in the Departments of Physics and Engineering on the Streatham Campus in Exeter.  Its aim is to undertake world-leading research, while training scientists and engineers with the relevant research skills and knowledge, and professional attributes for industry and academia.

XM2 studentships are of value around £90,000, which includes £11,000 towards the research project (travel, consumables, equipment etc.), tuition fees, and an annual, tax-free stipend of approximately £14,500 per year for UK/EU students.

Exeter has a well-established and strong track record of relevant research, and prospective students can consider projects from a wide variety of fields:

  • Acoustic and Fluid-dynamical Metamaterials
  • Biological and Bio-inspired Metamaterials
  • Graphene and other 2D Materials, and related Devices
  • Magnonics, Spintronics and Magnetic Metamaterials
  • Microwave Metamaterials
  • Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites
  • Optical, Infra-red and THz Photonics and Plasmonics
  • Quantum Metamaterials
  • Wave Theory and Spatial Transformations

Please visit www.exeter.ac.uk/metamaterials to learn more about our centre and see the full list of projects that we have on offer this year.

International students are welcome to apply: fees and project costs will be paid, but the stipend can only be provided in exceptional circumstances.  We encourage international scholarship applicants or recipients to contact us directly prior to making their application (metamaterials@exeter.ac.uk).

Statement of Research

Joint supervisors: Dr Steven Hepplestone, Prof Misha Portnoi, Prof Saverio Russo

The world is facing an energy crisis.  A key component in this crisis is the lack of a light weight energy storage mechanism.  The UK and other governments have announced that they are phasing out petrol and diesel vehicles in the next 30 years.  This requires electric cars which in turn need an efficient rechargeable battery.

The current generation of electric cars is estimated to go at best up to 200 miles, which corresponds to an energy density of roughly 300 Wh/kg.  In order to become really competitive, this needs to rise 500 Wh/kg.  Two-dimensional systems, ranging from bilayers to many layer systems provide ideal candidates for battery applications, in particular the anodes of the battery cell.  This is because it is possible to intercalated lithium (or sodium) ions between the layers without causing significant structural reconfiguration [1] (thus allowing for a high number of recharges), driven by the van der Waals pressure which stabilises unusual phases between the layers [2].  However, these devices still rely on traditional bulk components, but what is needed to take this forward is a 2D metamaterial battery. 

Systems such as phosphorene and the transitional metal dichalogenides (TMDCs) often offer higher operating voltages [3] but at the cost of becoming insulating during intercalation (which is not suitable for battery activities).    The project envisages using a combination of two or three different 2D materials in a layered format, with graphene initially forming the outer most layers of the stack to ensure conductivity.  The inner layers will consist of TMDC’s, phosphorene and other 2D systems.  Initial calculations will focus on the density of ions that can be intercalated, the operating voltage and the expansion of the system.  From this set up, the inner layers will be either oxidised or severed to explore potential geometries which allow greater amounts of intercalation, whilst maintaining the structure.  These devices will be characterised using optical techniques.

The manipulation of individual 2D layers, tuning the layers, and examining how carving individual flakes in half etc. may seem experimentally verging on impossible, but if a design can be found to enable high energy densities of 500 Wh/kg then it can be assured that military applications will immediately lead these to be developed, and in the long term picture, the car industry will be also get there to be ahead of their competitors.

[1] Mayo et al. Chem. Of Mat. 28, 2011 (2016)
[2] Vasu et al. Nature Comm. 7, 12168 (2016).
[3] Fan et al. J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 13599 (2017)

About XM2

Metamaterials are fabricated microstructures having properties beyond those found in nature. They are an important new class of electromagnetic and acoustic materials with applications in many technology areas: energy storage and improved efficiency, imaging, communications, sensing and the much-hyped ‘cloaking’. Having recruited nearly 70 new PhD researchers in its first four years, the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training (XM2) hosted by the University of Exeter (www.exeter.ac.uk/metamaterials) will admit its fifth cohort of PhD students in September 2018.

The first year of the studentship includes an assessed, stand alone project, and a substantial programme of training. Students will choose from a wide range of taught modules, and participate in academic and personal development skills-based workshops, together with creativity events and conference-style meetings. The cohort will also be expected to disseminate their results to the international community via high-impact publications and international conferences. They will spend time working with our academic and industrial partners.  Full details of the programme are available here, or download a copy of our prospectus.

The University of Exeter combines world class research with excellent student satisfaction. It is a member of the Russell Group of leading research-intensive universities. Formed in 1955, the University has over 20,000 students from more than 130 different countries. Its success is built on a strong partnership with its students and a clear focus on high performance. Recent breakthroughs to come out of Exeter's research include the identification and treatment of new forms of diabetes and the creation of the world's most transparent, lightweight and flexible conductor of electricity. Exeter is ranked amongst the UK’s top 10 universities in the Higher Education league tables produced by the Times and the Sunday Times. It is also ranked amongst the world’s top 200 universities in the QS and Times Higher Education rankings.


Application deadline:31st January 2018
Number of awards:1
Value:Approximately £90,000, including research and travel budget, tuition fees and stipend (approximately [£14,500/£16,500] payable to UK or EU students only)
Duration of award:per year
Contact: Prof. Alastair Hibbins (Admissions Tutor)metamaterials@exeter.ac.uk

How to apply

Application criteria

During the application process you will need to upload the documents listed below. Please prepare these before starting the application process.

  • A statement describing why you would like to study for a PhD in Physics or Engineering,
  • A statement describing why you are considering a PhD programme that offers a cohort-based doctoral training model,
  • An academic CV,
  • A cover letter that discusses your preferred area(s) of study and/or your interest in a particular project/supervisor,
  • A document outlining your research interests and any relevant expertise,
  • Degree transcript(s) giving information about the qualification awarded, the modules taken during the study period, and the marks for each module taken,
  • The contact details of two academic referees.

Please note that of all the projects advertised we expect, as a Centre, to fill 15-20 posts only.

Shortlisting and interviews

Applications will be reviewed by members of the XM2 management board and candidates will be short-listed against a set of agreed criteria to ensure quality while maintaining diversity. Failure to include all the the elements above may result in rejection. Criteria will include:


  • Excellence in a lower degree in a relevant discipline;
  • Excellence in written and oral skills in English;
  • Evidence of knowledge of XM2 ethos, research themes and/or supervisors.


  • Specialist knowledge about one or more XM2 topics;
  • Research outputs (e.g. papers) and/or has undertaken training in research methodology (e.g. undergraduate research projects);
  • Ability to work collaboratively

Short-listed candidates will be interviewed by a panel of two academic members of staff drawn from the management board. If successful, a second interview will be undertaken by the potential academic supervisors for the student concerned. Offers are normally made shortly after a successful second interview.