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Professor Edze Westra

Professor Edze Westra

Professor of Microbiology

 E.R.Westra@exeter.ac.uk

 Not Known

 Environment and Sustainability Institute 2.34

 

Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK


Overview

I Professor of Microbiology, working on the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions. My lab studies how ecological variables drive the evolution of various immune strategies in bacteria, with an emphasis on CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems, and examines their coevolutionary consequences. Bacteria encode lots of different immune mechanisms, and my team studies the interactions between defence systems. My team further studies the evolution of viral communication systems, patterns of antibiotics-phage synergy and antagonism, and interactions between the microbiome and anti-phage defence evolution.

I am a member of the Environment and Sustainability Institute and the Biosciences department of the College of Life and Environmental Sciences.

View my lab website here 

Qualifications

2020 & 2021 Finalist Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists in the UK 
2020 Fleming Prize from the Microbiology Society
2020 Philip Leverhulme Prize in Biological Sciences
2016 Heineken Young Scientist Award for Biochemistry and Biophysics (awarded by the KNAW, the Dutch royal society for science)
2014 Westerdijk Award for best Ph.D. research in Microbiology in the Netherlands (awarded by the KNVM, the Dutch society for microbiology)
2013 Westenbrink Award for best Ph.D. research in Biochemistry in the Netherlands (awarded by the NVBMB, the Dutch society for biochemistry and molecular biology)
2013 PhD Microbiology (University of Wageningen)

Career

2019 Professor / NERC Independent Research Fellow
2017 Associate Professor / NERC Independent Research Fellow
2016 Senior Lecturer / NERC Independent Research Fellow
2015 Lecturer / NERC Independent Research Fellow
2013 Marie-Curie postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Exeter
2013 Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Wageningen

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Research

Research interests

  • Evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions
  • Coevolution of bacteria and phage
  • Evolution of parasite host range and virulence
  • Antibiotics-phage synergy/antagonism
  • Evolution of viral communication
  • Defence interactions
  • Microbiome-defence interactions

Research projects

My current work focuses on the evolution of different immune strategies in bacteria in response to phage, and the coevolutionary consequences. I am particularly interested in the way parasites drive diversity in host populations and the impact of various immune mechanisms on the evolution of phage life history traits.

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Publications

Journal articles

Watson BNJ, Capria L, Alseth EO, Pons B, Biswas A, Lenzi L, Buckling A, van Houte S, Westra ER, Meaden S, et al (2024). CRISPR-Cas in Pseudomonas aeruginosa provides transient population-level immunity against high phage exposures. The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology
Pons BJ, Dimitriu T, Westra ER, van Houte S (2023). Antibiotics that affect translation can antagonize phage infectivity by interfering with the deployment of counter-defenses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 120(4). Abstract.  Author URL.
Pons BJ, Westra ER, van Houte S (2023). Determination of Acr-mediated immunosuppression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MethodsX, 10 Abstract.  Author URL.
Pons BJ, van Houte S, Westra ER, Chevallereau A (2023). Ecology and evolution of phages encoding anti-CRISPR proteins. J Mol Biol, 435(7). Abstract.  Author URL.
Sünderhauf D, Klümper U, Gaze WH, Westra ER, van Houte S (2023). Interspecific competition can drive plasmid loss from a focal species in a microbial community. The ISME Journal, 17(10), 1765-1773. Abstract.
Walker-Sünderhauf D, Klümper U, Pursey E, Westra ER, Gaze WH, van Houte S (2023). Removal of AMR plasmids using a mobile, broad host-range CRISPR-Cas9 delivery tool. Microbiology (Reading), 169(5). Abstract.  Author URL.
Attrill EL, Łapińska U, Westra ER, Harding SV, Pagliara S (2023). Slow growing bacteria survive bacteriophage in isolation. ISME Commun, 3(1). Abstract.  Author URL.
Alseth EO, Custodio R, Sundius SA, Kuske RA, Brown SP, Westra ER (2023). The impact of phage and phage resistance on microbial community dynamics. bioRxiv Abstract.  Author URL.
Watson BNJ, Pursey E, Gandon S, Westra ER (2023). Transient eco-evolutionary dynamics early in a phage epidemic have strong and lasting impact on the long-term evolution of bacterial defences. PLoS Biol, 21(9). Abstract.  Author URL.
Chevallereau A, Westra ER (2022). Bacterial immunity: Mobile genetic elements are hotspots for defence systems. Curr Biol, 32(17), R923-R926. Abstract.  Author URL.
Dimitriu T, Kurilovich E, Łapińska U, Severinov K, Pagliara S, Szczelkun MD, Westra ER (2022). Bacteriostatic antibiotics promote CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity by enabling increased spacer acquisition. Cell Host Microbe, 30(1), 31-40.e5. Abstract.  Author URL.
Pursey E, Dimitriu T, Paganelli FL, Westra ER, van Houte S (2022). CRISPR-Cas is associated with fewer antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial pathogens. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 377(1842). Abstract.  Author URL.
Meaden S, Biswas A, Arkhipova K, Morales SE, Dutilh BE, Westra ER, Fineran PC (2022). High viral abundance and low diversity are associated with increased CRISPR-Cas prevalence across microbial ecosystems. Curr Biol, 32(1), 220-227.e5. Abstract.  Author URL.
Chevallereau A, Pons BJ, van Houte S, Westra ER (2022). Interactions between bacterial and phage communities in natural environments. NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY, 20(1), 49-62. Author URL.
Dimitriu T, Kurilovich E, Lapinska U, Severinov K, Pagliara S, Szczelkun MD, Westra ER (2021). Bacteriostatic antibiotics promote the evolution of CRISPR-Cas immunity.  Abstract.
Pursey E, Dimitriu T, Paganelli FL, Westra ER, van Houte S (2021). CRISPR-Cas is associated with fewer antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial pathogens.  Abstract.
Watson BNJ, Steens JA, Staals RHJ, Westra ER, van Houte S (2021). Coevolution between bacterial CRISPR-Cas systems and their bacteriophages. Cell Host Microbe, 29(5), 715-725. Abstract.  Author URL.
Weissman JL, Alseth EO, Meaden S, Westra ER, Fuhrman JA (2021). Immune lag is a major cost of prokaryotic adaptive immunity during viral outbreaks. Proc Biol Sci, 288(1961). Abstract.  Author URL.
Attrill EL, Claydon R, Łapińska U, Recker M, Meaden S, Brown AT, Westra ER, Harding SV, Pagliara S (2021). Individual bacteria in structured environments rely on phenotypic resistance to phage. PLoS Biol, 19(10). Abstract.  Author URL.
Meaden S, Capria L, Alseth E, Gandon S, Biswas A, Lenzi L, van Houte S, Westra ER (2021). Phage gene expression and host responses lead to infection-dependent costs of CRISPR immunity (vol 15, pg 523, 2021). ISME JOURNAL, 15(8), 2491-2491. Author URL.
Bruce JB, Lion S, Buckling A, Westra ER, Gandon S (2021). Regulation of prophage induction and lysogenization by phage communication systems. Curr Biol, 31(22), 5046-5051.e7. Abstract.  Author URL.
Broniewski JM, Chisnall MAW, Høyland-Kroghsbo NM, Buckling A, Westra ER (2021). The effect of Quorum sensing inhibitors on the evolution of CRISPR-based phage immunity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ISME J, 15(8), 2465-2473. Abstract.  Author URL.
Weissman JL, Stoltzfus A, Westra ER, Johnson PLF (2020). Avoidance of Self during CRISPR Immunization. Trends in Microbiology, 28(7), 543-553. Abstract.
Common J, Walker-Sünderhauf D, van Houte S, Westra ER (2020). Diversity in CRISPR-based immunity protects susceptible genotypes by restricting phage spread and evolution. J Evol Biol, 33(8), 1097-1108. Abstract.  Author URL.
Dimitriu T, Szczelkun MD, Westra ER (2020). Evolutionary Ecology and Interplay of Prokaryotic Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems. Current Biology, 30(19), R1189-R1202.
Chevallereau A, Meaden S, Fradet O, Landsberger M, Maestri A, Biswas A, Gandon S, van Houte S, Westra ER (2020). Exploitation of the Cooperative Behaviors of Anti-CRISPR Phages. Cell Host & Microbe, 27(2), 189-198.e6.
Weissman JL, Alseth EO, Meaden S, Westra ER, Fuhrman JA (2020). Immune Lag is a Major Cost of Prokaryotic Adaptive Immunity During Viral Outbreaks.  Abstract.
Westra ER (2020). Interview with Professor Edze Westra, NERC Independent Fellow. University of Exeter. Cell Microbiol, 22(6). Author URL.
Westra ER, Levin BR (2020). It is unclear how important CRISPR-Cas systems are for protecting natural populations of bacteria against infections by mobile genetic elements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 117(45), 27777-27785. Abstract.  Author URL.
Meaden S, Capria L, Alseth E, Gandon S, Biswas A, Lenzi L, van Houte S, Westra ER (2020). Phage gene expression and host responses lead to infection-dependent costs of CRISPR immunity. The ISME Journal, 15(2), 534-544. Abstract.
Rollie C, Chevallereau A, Watson BNJ, Chyou T-Y, Fradet O, McLeod I, Fineran PC, Brown CM, Gandon S, Westra ER, et al (2020). Targeting of temperate phages drives loss of type I CRISPR–Cas systems. Nature, 578(7793), 149-153.
Broniewski JM, Meaden S, Paterson S, Buckling A, Westra ER (2020). The effect of phage genetic diversity on bacterial resistance evolution. ISME J, 14(3), 828-836. Abstract.  Author URL.
Sünderhauf D, Pursey E, Klümper U, Westra E, Gaze W, van Houte S (2019). AMR gene removal by conjugative delivery of CRISPR-Cas9. Access Microbiology, 1(1A).
van Sluijs L, van Houte S, van der Oost J, Brouns SJ, Buckling A, Westra ER (2019). Addiction systems antagonize bacterial adaptive immunity. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 366(5). Abstract.  Author URL.
Alseth EO, Pursey E, Luján AM, McLeod I, Rollie C, Westra E (2019). Bacterial biodiversity drives the evolution of CRISPR-based phage resistance. Nature, 574, 549-552.
Alseth EO, Pursey E, Luján AM, McLeod I, Rollie C, Westra ER (2019). Bacterial biodiversity drives the evolution of CRISPR-based phage resistance in <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>.  Abstract.
Common J, Westra ER (2019). CRISPR evolution and bacteriophage persistence in the context of population bottlenecks. RNA Biol, 16(4), 588-594. Abstract.  Author URL.
Common J, Morley D, Westra ER, van Houte S (2019). CRISPR-Cas immunity leads to a coevolutionary arms race between Streptococcus thermophilus and lytic phage. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 374(1772). Abstract.  Author URL.
Common J, Walker-Sünderhauf D, van Houte S, Westra ER (2019). Diversity in CRISPR-based immunity protects susceptible genotypes by restricting phage spread and evolution.  Abstract.
Chevallereau A, Meaden S, Fradet O, Landsberger M, Maestri A, Biswas A, Gandon S, van Houte S, Westra ER (2019). Exploitation of the cooperative behaviours of anti-CRISPR phages.  Abstract.
Varble A, Meaden S, Barrangou R, Westra ER, Marraffini LA (2019). Recombination between phages and CRISPR-cas loci facilitates horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci. Nat Microbiol, 4(6), 956-963. Abstract.  Author URL.
Pursey E, Sünderhauf D, Paganelli F, Gaze W, Westra E, van Houte S (2019). Targeting antimicrobial resistance genes in clinical isolates from healthcare-associated infections using CRISPR-Cas9. Access Microbiology, 1(1A).
Westra ER, van Houte S, Gandon S, Whitaker R (2019). The ecology and evolution of microbial CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 374(1772). Author URL.
Chevallereau A, Meaden S, van Houte S, Westra ER, Rollie C (2019). The effect of bacterial mutation rate on the evolution of CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 374(1772). Abstract.  Author URL.
Dimitriu T, Ashby B, Westra ER (2019). Transposition: a CRISPR Way to Get Around. Current Biology, 29(18), R886-R889. Abstract.
Watson BNJ, Vercoe RB, Salmond GPC, Westra ER, Staals RHJ, Fineran PC (2019). Type I-F CRISPR-Cas resistance against virulent phage infection triggers abortive infection and provides population-level immunity.  Abstract.
Watson BNJ, Vercoe RB, Salmond GPC, Westra ER, Staals RHJ, Fineran PC (2019). Type I-F CRISPR-Cas resistance against virulent phages results in abortive infection and provides population-level immunity. Nat Commun, 10(1). Abstract.  Author URL.
Chabas H, Nicot A, Meaden S, Westra ER, Tremblay DM, Pradier L, Lion S, Moineau S, Gandon S (2019). Variability in the durability of CRISPR-Cas immunity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 374(1772). Abstract.  Author URL.
Landsberger M, Gandon S, Meaden S, Rollie C, Chevallereau A, Chabas H, Buckling A, Westra ER, van Houte S (2018). Anti-CRISPR Phages Cooperate to Overcome CRISPR-Cas Immunity. Cell, 174(4), 908-916.e12. Abstract.  Author URL.
Landsberger M, Gandon S, Meaden S, Chabas H, Buckling A, Westra ER, Houte SV (2018). Anti-CRISPR phages cooperate to overcome CRISPR-Cas immunity.  Abstract.
Pursey E, Sünderhauf D, Gaze WH, Westra ER, van Houte S (2018). CRISPR-Cas antimicrobials: Challenges and future prospects. PLoS Pathog, 14(6). Author URL.
Chabas H, Lion S, Nicot A, Meaden S, van Houte S, Moineau S, Wahl LM, Westra ER, Gandon S (2018). Evolutionary emergence of infectious diseases in heterogeneous host populations. PLoS Biol, 16(9). Abstract.  Author URL.
Daugherty DA, Runyan JD, Steenbergh TA, Fratzke BJ, Fry BN, Westra E (2018). Smartphone delivery of a hope intervention: Another way to flourish. PLoS One, 13(6). Abstract.  Author URL.
Morley D, Broniewski JM, Westra ER, Buckling A, van Houte S (2017). Host diversity limits the evolution of parasite local adaptation. Mol Ecol, 26(7), 1756-1763. Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, Sünderhauf D, Landsberger M, Buckling A (2017). Mechanisms and consequences of diversity-generating immune strategies. Nat Rev Immunol, 17(11), 719-728. Abstract.  Author URL.
Gaines TA, Barker AL, Patterson EL, Westra P, Westra EP, Wilson RG, Jha P, Kumar V, Kniss AR (2016). EPSPS Gene Copy Number and Whole-Plant Glyphosate Resistance Level in Kochia scoparia. PLoS One, 11(12). Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, Dowling AJ, Broniewski JM, Van Houte S (2016). Evolution and Ecology of CRISPR. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 47, 307-331. Abstract.
van Houte S, Buckling A, Westra ER (2016). Evolutionary Ecology of Prokaryotic Immune Mechanisms. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 80(3), 745-763. Abstract.  Author URL.
Chabas H, van Houte S, Høyland-Kroghsbo NM, Buckling A, Westra ER (2016). Immigration of susceptible hosts triggers the evolution of alternative parasite defence strategies. Proc Biol Sci, 283(1837). Abstract.  Author URL.
Bondy-Denomy J, Qian J, Westra ER, Buckling A, Guttman DS, Davidson AR, Maxwell KL (2016). Prophages mediate defense against phage infection through diverse mechanisms. ISME J, 10(12), 2854-2866. Abstract.  Author URL.
Høyland-Kroghsbo NM, Paczkowski J, Mukherjee S, Broniewski J, Westra E, Bondy-Denomy J, Bassler BL (2016). Quorum sensing controls the. <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(1), 131-135. Abstract.
van Houte S, Ekroth AKE, Broniewski JM, Chabas H, Ashby B, Bondy-Denomy J, Gandon S, Boots M, Paterson S, Buckling A, et al (2016). The diversity-generating benefits of a prokaryotic adaptive immune system. Nature, 532(7599), 385-388. Abstract.  Author URL.
Swarts DC, Koehorst JJ, Westra ER, Schaap PJ, van der Oost J (2015). Effects of Argonaute on Gene Expression in Thermus thermophilus. PLoS One, 10(4). Abstract.  Author URL.
Künne T, Westra ER, Brouns SJJ (2015). Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay of DNA and CRISPR-Cas Ribonucleoprotein Complexes. Methods Mol Biol, 1311, 171-184. Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, van Houte S, Oyesiku-Blakemore S, Makin B, Broniewski JM, Best A, Bondy-Denomy J, Davidson A, Boots M, Buckling A, et al (2015). Parasite Exposure Drives Selective Evolution of Constitutive versus Inducible Defense. Curr Biol, 25(8), 1043-1049. Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, Van houte S, Oyesiku-Blakemore S, Makin B, Broniewski JM, Best A, Bondy-Denomy J, Davidson A, Boots M, Buckling A, et al (2015). Parasite exposure drives selective evolution of constitutive versus inducible defense. Current Biology, 25(8), 1043-1049. Abstract.
Blosser TR, Loeff L, Westra ER, Vlot M, Künne T, Sobota M, Dekker C, Brouns SJJ, Joo C (2015). Two distinct DNA binding modes guide dual roles of a CRISPR-Cas protein complex. Mol Cell, 58(1), 60-70. Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, Buckling A, Fineran PC (2014). CRISPR-Cas systems: Beyond adaptive immunity. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 12(5), 317-326. Abstract.
Westra ER, Buckling A, Fineran PC (2014). CRISPR-Cas systems: beyond adaptive immunity. Nat Rev Microbiol, 12(5), 317-326. Abstract.  Author URL.
Swarts DC, Jore MM, Westra ER, Zhu Y, Janssen JH, Snijders AP, Wang Y, Patel DJ, Berenguer J, Brouns SJJ, et al (2014). DNA-guided DNA interference by a prokaryotic Argonaute. Nature, 507(7491), 258-261. Abstract.
Swarts DC, Jore MM, Westra ER, Zhu Y, Janssen JH, Snijders AP, Wang Y, Patel DJ, Berenguer J, Brouns SJJ, et al (2014). DNA-guided DNA interference by a prokaryotic Argonaute. Nature, 507(7491), 258-261. Abstract.  Author URL.
Blosser T, Westra E, Loeff L, Dekker C, Brouns S, Joo C (2014). Defense Against Viral Attack: Single-Molecule View on a Bacterial Adaptive Immune System. Biophysical Journal, 106(2).
Swarts D, Westra E, Brouns S, van der Oost J (2014). Purification and Sequencing of DNA Guides from Prokaryotic Argonaute. Bio-protocol, 4(22).
Jackson RN, Golden SM, van Erp PBG, Carter J, Westra ER, Brouns SJJ, van der Oost J, Terwilliger TC, Read RJ, Wiedenheft B, et al (2014). Structural biology. Crystal structure of the CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex from Escherichia coli. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6203), 1473-1479. Abstract.
Jackson RN, Golden SM, van Erp PBG, Carter J, Westra ER, Brouns SJJ, van der Oost J, Terwilliger TC, Read RJ, Wiedenheft B, et al (2014). Structural biology. Crystal structure of the CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex from Escherichia coli. Science, 345(6203), 1473-1479. Abstract.  Author URL.
Van Der Oost J, Westra ER, Jackson RN, Wiedenheft B (2014). Unravelling the structural and mechanistic basis of CRISPR-Cas systems. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 12(7), 479-492. Abstract.
van der Oost J, Westra ER, Jackson RN, Wiedenheft B (2014). Unravelling the structural and mechanistic basis of CRISPR-Cas systems. Nat Rev Microbiol, 12(7), 479-492. Abstract.  Author URL.
Ruigrok VJB, Westra ER, Brouns SJJ, Escudé C, Smidt H, van der Oost J (2013). A capture approach for supercoiled plasmid DNA using a triplex-forming oligonucleotide. Nucleic Acids Res, 41(10). Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, Staals RHJ, Gort G, Høgh S, Neumann S, de la Cruz F, Fineran PC, Brouns SJJ (2013). CRISPR-Cas systems preferentially target the leading regions of MOBF conjugative plasmids. RNA Biol, 10(5), 749-761. Abstract.  Author URL.
Ruigrok VJB, Westra ER, Brouns SJJ, Escudé C, Smidt H, Van Der Oost J (2013). The role of DNA bending in type IIA topoisomerase function. Nucleic Acids Research, 41(10). Abstract.
Westra ER, Semenova E, Datsenko KA, Jackson RN, Wiedenheft B, Severinov K, Brouns SJJ (2013). Type I-E CRISPR-cas systems discriminate target from non-target DNA through base pairing-independent PAM recognition. PLoS Genet, 9(9). Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, van Erp PBG, Künne T, Wong SP, Staals RHJ, Seegers CLC, Bollen S, Jore MM, Semenova E, Severinov K, et al (2012). CRISPR immunity relies on the consecutive binding and degradation of negatively supercoiled invader DNA by Cascade and Cas3. Mol Cell, 46(5), 595-605. Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, Nilges B, van Erp PBG, van der Oost J, Dame RT, Brouns SJJ (2012). Cascade-mediated binding and bending of negatively supercoiled DNA. RNA Biol, 9(9), 1134-1138. Abstract.  Author URL.
van Duijn E, Barbu IM, Barendregt A, Jore MM, Wiedenheft B, Lundgren M, Westra ER, Brouns SJJ, Doudna JA, van der Oost J, et al (2012). Native tandem and ion mobility mass spectrometry highlight structural and modular similarities in clustered-regularly-interspaced shot-palindromic-repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein complexes from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mol Cell Proteomics, 11(11), 1430-1441. Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, Swarts DC, Staals RHJ, Jore MM, Brouns SJJ, van der Oost J (2012). The CRISPRs, they are a-changin': how prokaryotes generate adaptive immunity. Annu Rev Genet, 46, 311-339. Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, Brouns SJJ (2012). The rise and fall of CRISPRs--dynamics of spacer acquisition and loss. Mol Microbiol, 85(6), 1021-1025. Abstract.  Author URL.
Al-Attar S, Westra ER, van der Oost J, Brouns SJJ (2011). Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs): the hallmark of an ingenious antiviral defense mechanism in prokaryotes. Biol Chem, 392(4), 277-289. Abstract.  Author URL.
Semenova E, Jore MM, Datsenko KA, Semenova A, Westra ER, Wanner B, van der Oost J, Brouns SJJ, Severinov K (2011). Interference by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) RNA is governed by a seed sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108(25), 10098-10103. Abstract.  Author URL.
Jore MM, Lundgren M, van Duijn E, Bultema JB, Westra ER, Waghmare SP, Wiedenheft B, Pul U, Wurm R, Wagner R, et al (2011). Structural basis for CRISPR RNA-guided DNA recognition by Cascade. Nat Struct Mol Biol, 18(5), 529-536. Abstract.  Author URL.
Abu-Dayyeh I, Hassani K, Westra ER, Mottram JC, Olivier M (2010). Comparative study of the ability of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and amastigotes to alter macrophage signaling and functions. Infect Immun, 78(6), 2438-2445. Abstract.  Author URL.
Westra ER, Pul U, Heidrich N, Jore MM, Lundgren M, Stratmann T, Wurm R, Raine A, Mescher M, Van Heereveld L, et al (2010). H-NS-mediated repression of CRISPR-based immunity in Escherichia coli K12 can be relieved by the transcription activator LeuO. Mol Microbiol, 77(6), 1380-1393. Abstract.  Author URL.
van der Oost J, Jore MM, Westra ER, Lundgren M, Brouns SJJ (2009). CRISPR-based adaptive and heritable immunity in prokaryotes. Trends Biochem Sci, 34(8), 401-407. Abstract.  Author URL.
Brouns SJJ, Jore MM, Lundgren M, Westra ER, Slijkhuis RJH, Snijders APL, Dickman MJ, Makarova KS, Koonin EV, van der Oost J, et al (2008). Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in prokaryotes. Science, 321(5891), 960-964. Abstract.  Author URL.

Chapters

Westra ER, Jore MM, Al-Attar S, Brouns SJJ, van der Oost J, Zaher H (2021). RNA | Small RNAs in Bacteria. In  (Ed) Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry III, Elsevier, 580-586.
Arslan Z, Westra ER, Wagner R, Pul Ü (2013). Regulation of CRISPR-based immune responses. In  (Ed) CRISPR-Cas Systems: RNA-Mediated Adaptive Immunity in Bacteria and Archaea, 93-113.  Abstract.
Westra ER, Jore MM, Al-Attar S, Brouns SJJ, van der Oost J (2013). Small RNAs in Bacteria. In  (Ed) Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry: Second Edition, 249-255.  Abstract.
Arslan Z, Westra ER, Wagner R, Pul Ü (2012). Regulation of CRISPR-Based Immune Responses. In  (Ed) CRISPR-Cas Systems, Springer Nature, 93-113.
Arslan Z, Westra ER, Wagner R, Pul Ü (2012). Regulation of CRISPR-Based Immune Responses. In  (Ed) CRISPR-Cas Systems, Springer Nature, 93-113.

Conferences

Blosser TR, Westra ER, van der Oost J, Dekker C, Brouns SJJ, Joo C (2013). Defense against viral attack: single-molecule view on a bacterial adaptive immune system.  Author URL.

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Teaching

Modules

2023/24

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